DG SANCO 05-05-2008 Foot-and-Mouth Disease - Educational video - View an educational video on Foot and Mouth Disease Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, usually non-fatal viral disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals, but may also affect certain other species. It is widely distributed throughout the world. Animals recovered from the disease may remain carriers of the infectious virus for an extended period of time. FMD is not dangerous to humans, but has a great potential for causing severe economic losses in susceptible animals. Causative agent: FMD is caused by a non-enveloped Aphtovirus of the family Picornaviridae, existing in seven distinct serotypes of FMD virus, namely, O, A, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, SAT 3 and Asia 1, most of them with many more subtypes.
Parasites & Vectors 25/11/15 Can insecticide-treated netting provide protection for Equids from Culicoides biting midges in the United Kingdom? This study is the first to utilise WHO cone bioassays to investigate the mortality rate in Culicoides caused by exposure to insecticide treated nets (ITNs). In addition, the study is also the first to investigate the effectiveness and logistical feasibility of utilising ITNs to protect horses from Culicoides in the UK using field experiments. A pyrethroid-based insecticide which is currently licenced for use by amateurs and commercially available ready-formulated on the UK market (treatment F: Tri-Tec 14® (LS Sales (Farnham) Ltd, UK)) was found to cause 100 % mortality in exposed Culicoides for up to two weeks post-treatment in the WHO cone bioassays. Subsequently, untreated-mesh and mesh treated with the insecticide Tri-Tec 14® were found to significantly reduce the entry of Culicoides both into frames covered with mesh and to stables whose entrance had been covered with mesh.
Foot-and-mouth disease Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has severe implications for animal farming, since it is highly infectious and can be spread by infected animals through aerosols, through contact with contaminated farming equipment, vehicles, clothing, or feed, and by domestic and wild predators. Its containment demands considerable efforts in vaccination, strict monitoring, trade restrictions, and quarantines, and occasionally the killing of animals. Susceptible animals include cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, deer, and bison. It has also been known to infect hedgehogs and elephants; llamas, and alpacas may develop mild symptoms, but are resistant to the disease and do not pass it on to others of the same species. In laboratory experiments, mice, rats, and chickens have been successfully infected by artificial means, but they are not believed to contract the disease under natural conditions. Humans are very rarely infected.
VIROLOGY JOURNAL 02/07/16 Requirements and comparative analysis of reverse genetics for bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) Bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) are OIE listed arthropod borne animal diseases caused by the viruses in the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. These viruses are spread by specific species of Culicoides biting midges. Outbreaks and geographic expansion of affected areas are associated to various factors, including climate change [1, 2], and the presence of competent biting Culicoides midges . Culicoides species in countries with a moderate climate are competent insect vectors for BTV [4, 5, 6].
PLOS 23/11/15 Pathogenesis of Primary Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Vaccinated and Non-Vaccinated Cattle Abstract A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection following simulated-natural (intra-nasopharyngeal) virus exposure of cattle that were non-vaccinated or vaccinated using a recombinant adenovirus-vectored FMDV vaccine. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection in both categories of animals with consistent predilection for the nasopharyngeal mucosa. A rapid progression of infection with viremia and widespread dissemination of virus occurred in non-vaccinated animals whilst vaccinated cattle were protected from viremia and clinical FMD. Analysis of micro-anatomic distribution of virus during early infection by lasercapture microdissection localized FMDV RNA to follicle-associated epithelium of the nasopharyngeal mucosa in both groups of animals, with concurrent detection of viral genome in nasopharyngeal MALT follicles in vaccinated cattle only.
CDC EID - DEC 2016 - Au sommaire: African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South Africa, 2004–2014 Camilla T. Weyer, John D. Grewar, Phillippa Burger, Esthea Rossouw, Carina Lourens, Christopher Joone, Misha le Grange, Peter Coetzee, Estelle H. Venter, Darren P. FAO 03/10/16 New Resources available online for FMD and other TADS - Improving emergency management capacity with a variety of tools Improving emergency management capacity with a variety of tools The European Commission for the control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EuFMD) is increasingly focused on training and knowledge-sharing. The resources made available in the e-learning and online training area of the EuFMD are constantly being updated and developed. Recently, the focus has been on the material provided for the Balkans, Thrace region of Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, against the framework of the Pillar II component of the EuFMD workplan.
PLOS 12/11/14 Worldwide Niche and Future Potential Distribution of Culicoides imicola, a Major Vector of Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness Viruses Abstract We modelled the ecoclimatic niche of Culicoides imicola, a major arthropod vector of midge-borne viral pathogens affecting ruminants and equids, at fine scale and on a global extent, so as to provide insight into current and future risks of disease epizootics, and increase current knowledge of the species' ecology. Based on the known distribution and ecology of C. imicola, the species' response to monthly climatic conditions was characterised using CLIMEX with 10′ spatial resolution climatic datasets. The species' climatic niche was projected worldwide and under future climatic scenarios.
PENN STATE EXTENSION 07/12/17 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) - Risk posed by the importation of meat (beef) Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, highly infectious viral disease that affects (primarily) cloven-hooved species. The risk of importing meat contaminated by the Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) can be evaluated and reduced by implementing effective, scientifically-sound safeguards. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the intergovernmental organization responsible for improving animal health worldwide, is responsible for designating the FMD status for participating countries.
PLOS 10/04/14 Real Time RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Typing of African Horse Sickness Virus Abstract Although African horse sickness (AHS) can cause up to 95% mortality in horses, naïve animals can be protected by vaccination against the homologous AHSV serotype. Genome segment 2 (Seg-2) encodes outer capsid protein VP2, the most variable of the AHSV proteins. EUFMD via YOUTUBE - JUIN 2019 - Nouvelles vidéos anglophones et francophones du webinaire consacré à la fièvre aphteuse. EuFMD has been running foot-and-mouth disease Real Time Training courses since 2009. We have trained over 700 veterinarians from 50 countries in the field in Turkey, Kenya and Nepal, all of whom have left with a much greater understanding of the issues involved in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control in both free countries and those endemic for FMD. The courses are led by international FMD experts and involve hands-on practical field training on:• investigation of a suspect FMD outbreak;• FMD clinical and laboratory diagnosis, lesion ageing and importance of correct sampling for laboratory procedures;• FMD field epidemiology and local surveillance to assess spread;• managing biosecurity of veterinary operations. Participants will work in an international group of trainees from multiple countries, and with veterinarians from the local area.
BMC Veterinary Research 09/09/17 The effect of alphacypermethrin-treated mesh protection against African horse sickness virus vectors on jet stall microclimate, clinical variables and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites of horses Alphacypermethrin-treated HDPE mesh applied to commercial jet stalls as a physical and chemical protection barrier against AHSV vectors did not compromise jet stall microclimate, clinical variables or indicators of physiological stress in horses housed under stationary stall, temperate climatic conditions. Closed top HMA-type jet stalls are commonly used to transport horses internationally. These stalls avoid potential fire alarm concerns associated with air conditioning units of climate-controlled stalls, however ventilation and microclimate could be affected by application of mesh around the stalls for protection against vectors. The outside temperatures in the present study were within or lower than a guideline range for transport of horses (10–21 °C), while the RH was higher than the recommended range (45–50%) , as expected for the overnight study conditions.
ANIMALS - Special Issue "African Swine Fever – Knowledge, Theses, Facts" - Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021. Special Issue Editors Dr. Katja SchulzWebsiteGuest Editor Institute of Epidemiology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald, Insel Riems, GermanyInterests: African swine fever; epidemiology; surveillance; participatory epidemiology; wild boar Dr. J Vector Ecol. 2016 Jun;41(1):179-85. Detection of African horse sickness virus in Culicoides imicola pools using RT-qPCR. African horse sickness (AHS) is an infectious, non-contagious arthropod-borne disease of equids, caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), an orbivirus of the Reoviridae family. It is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and thought to be the most lethal viral disease of horses. This study focused on detection of AHSV in Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) pools by the application of a RT-qPCR.