Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005 Fiction: Symbols and Signs For the fourth time in as many years, they were confronted with the problem of what birthday present to take to a young man who was incurably deranged in his mind. Desires he had none. Man-made objects were to him either hives of evil, vibrant with a malignant activity that he alone could perceive, or gross comforts for which no use could be found in his abstract world. After eliminating a number of articles that might offend him or frighten him (anything in the gadget line, for instance, was taboo), his parents chose a dainty and innocent trifle—a basket with ten different fruit jellies in ten little jars. At the time of his birth, they had already been married for a long time; a score of years had elapsed, and now they were quite old. That Friday, their son’s birthday, everything went wrong. Outside the building, she waited for her husband to open his umbrella and then took his arm. “I can’t sleep!” “Why can’t you sleep?” “Is it your stomach? “No doctors, no doctors,” he moaned.
Schizophreniform disorder Schizophreniform disorder is a mental disorder diagnosed when symptoms of schizophrenia are present for a significant portion of the time within a one-month period, but signs of disruption are not present for the full six months required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The symptoms of both disorders can include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and social withdrawal. While impairment in social, occupational, or academic functioning is required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia, in schizophreniform disorder an individual's level of functioning may or may not be affected. Like schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder is often treated with antipsychotic medications, especially the atypicals, along with a variety of social supports (such as individual psychotherapy, family therapy, occupational therapy, etc.) designed to reduce the social and emotional impact of the illness. Symptoms and diagnosis Prognosis Etiology
Dependent personality disorder Dependent personality disorder (DPD), formerly known as asthenic personality disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people. This personality disorder is a long-term (chronic) condition in which people depend on others to meet their emotional and physical needs, with only a minority achieving normal levels of independence. The difference between a 'dependent personality' and a 'dependent personality disorder' is somewhat subjective, which makes diagnosis sensitive to cultural influences such as gender role expectations. Characteristics View of others Individuals with DPD see other people as much more capable to shoulder life's responsibilities, to navigate a complex world, and to deal with the competitions of life. Other people appear powerful, competent, and capable of providing a sense of security and support to individuals with DPD. Self-image Relationships Comparison with other PDs General:
Schizotypal Personality Disorder - PsychCentral Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by someone who has great difficulty in establishing and maintaining close relationships with others. A person with schizotypal personality disorder may have extreme discomfort with such relationships, and therefore have less of a capacity for them. Someone with this disorder usually has cognitive or perceptual distortions as well as eccentricities in their everyday behavior. Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often have ideas of reference (e.g., they have incorrect interpretations of casual incidents and external events as having a particular and unusual meaning specifically for the person). Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder often seek treatment for the associated symptoms of anxiety, depression, or other dysphoric affects rather than for the personality disorder features per se. Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorder How is Schizotypal Personality Disorder Diagnosed?
Delusion A delusion is a belief held with strong conviction despite superior evidence to the contrary. As a pathology, it is distinct from a belief based on false or incomplete information, confabulation, dogma, illusion, or other effects of perception. Delusions typically occur in the context of neurological or mental illness, although they are not tied to any particular disease and have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both physical and mental). However, they are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, paraphrenia, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. Definition Although non-specific concepts of madness have been around for several thousand years, the psychiatrist and philosopher Karl Jaspers was the first to define the three main criteria for a belief to be considered delusional in his 1913 book General Psychopathology. These criteria are: Types Themes Diagnosis
Schizophrenia Schizophrenia (/ˌskɪtsɵˈfrɛniə/ or /ˌskɪtsɵˈfriːniə/) is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, auditory hallucinations, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and lack of motivation. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person's reported experiences. Genetics and early environment, as well as psychological and social processes, appear to be important contributory factors. Symptoms begin typically in young adulthood, and about 0.3–0.7% of people are affected during their lifetime. The disorder is thought to mainly affect the ability to think, but it also usually contributes to chronic problems with behavior and emotion. Symptoms Self-portrait of a person with schizophrenia, representing that individual's perception of the distorted experience of reality in the disorder Positive and negative Onset Causes Genetic Environment Mechanisms
Paranoid personality disorder Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others. Individuals with this personality disorder may be hypersensitive, easily feel slighted, and habitually relate to the world by vigilant scanning of the environment for clues or suggestions that may validate their fears or biases. Paranoid individuals are eager observers. They think they are in danger and look for signs and threats of that danger, potentially not appreciating other evidence. They tend to be guarded and suspicious and have quite constricted emotional lives. Causes A genetic contribution to paranoid traits and a possible genetic link between this personality disorder and schizophrenia exist. Diagnosis WHO The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists paranoid personality disorder as (F60.0) Paranoid personality disorder. Excludes: APA The diagnostic criteria are subject to copyright.
Schizotypal personality disorder: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Schizotypal personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has trouble with relationships and disturbances in thought patterns, appearance, and behavior. Causes Cause of schizotypal personality disorder is unknown. Genes are thought to be involved because this condition is more common in relatives of schizophrenics. Symptoms Schizotypal personality disorder should not be confused with schizophrenia. People with schizotypal personality disorder may be very disturbed. More commonly, people with this disorder behave oddly and have unusual beliefs (such as aliens). People with this disorder may also have depression. Common signs of schizotypal personality disorder include: Discomfort in social situationsInappropriate displays of feelingsNo close friendsOdd behavior or appearanceOdd beliefs, fantasies, or preoccupationsOdd speech Exams and Tests Treatment Talk therapy is an important part of treatment. Outlook (Prognosis) Possible Complications Prevention References
Mania Mania varies in intensity, from mild mania (hypomania) to full-blown mania with extreme energy, racing thoughts, and forced speech. Standardized tools such as Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale can be used to measure severity of manic episodes. Because mania and hypomania have also been associated with creativity and artistic talent, it is not always the case that the clearly manic bipolar person needs or wants medical help; such persons often either retain sufficient self-control to function normally or are unaware that they have "gone manic" severely enough to be committed or to commit themselves. Manic persons often can be mistaken for being on drugs or other mind-altering substances. Classification Mixed states The mixed state can put a patient at greater suicide risk. Hypomania Associated disorders A single manic episode is sufficient to diagnose bipolar I disorder. Signs and symptoms Cause Treatment
Delusional disorder Delusional disorder is an uncommon psychiatric condition in which patients present with delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect. Delusions are a specific symptom of psychosis. Non-bizarre delusions are fixed false beliefs that involve situations that could potentially occur in real life; examples include being followed or poisoned. Apart from their delusions, people with delusional disorder may continue to socialize and function in a normal manner and their behaviour does not generally seem odd or bizarre. However, the preoccupation with delusional ideas can be disruptive to their overall lives. For the diagnosis to be made, auditory and visual hallucinations cannot be prominent, though olfactory or tactile hallucinations related to the content of the delusion may be present. Indicators of a delusion The following can indicate a delusion: Features Types
Personality Disorder Movies & Videos Movies Portraying Personality Disorders Personality Disorders exist wherever people live and are part of our culture. It should come as no surprise that many popular characters in movies and fiction portray some of the characteristic behaviors of people with personality disorders. This page contains descriptions of some popular movies with links to YouTube trailers and clips related to personality disorders which may be of interest to our readers. Movies Portraying Antisocial Personality Disorder Traits Girl, Interrupted - Girl, Interrupted is a 1999 Columbia Pictures movie which chronicles the experiences of a teenage girl with Borderline Personality Disorder, who is admitted to a mental health institution after attempting suicide. Dr. Rachel Getting Married - Rachel Getting Married is a 2008 Sony Pictures Classics Release starring Anne Hathaway which chronicles the events surrounding the appearance of a young woman who suffers from Antisocial Personality Disorder at her sister's wedding.
Mental Health: Schizotypal Personality Disorder Why do I need to register or sign in for WebMD to save? We will provide you with a dropdown of all your saved articles when you are registered and signed in. What Are Personality Disorders? People with personality disorders have long-standing patterns of thinking and acting that differ from what society considers usual or normal. Unlike people with anxiety disorders, who know they have a problem but are unable to control it, people with personality disorders generally are not aware that they have a problem and do not believe they have anything to control. Recommended Related to Mental Health Web Confessions: Guilty Pleasure or Healthy Habit? These days, more and more people are engaged in “web confessions” -- baring their secrets to online communities, often anonymously. Read the Web Confessions: Guilty Pleasure or Healthy Habit? What Is Schizotypal Personality Disorder? Schizotypal personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called eccentric personality disorders.
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, as articulated by Erik Erikson, is a psychoanalytic theory which identifies eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage, the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds upon the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future. However, mastery of a stage is not required to advance to the next stage. Erikson's stage theory characterizes an individual advancing through the eight life stages as a function of negotiating his or her biological forces and sociocultural forces. Stages Hopes: trust vs. mistrust (oral-sensory, birth – 2 years) Existential Question: Can I Trust the World? The first stage of Erik Erikson's theory centers around the infant's basic needs being met by the parents and this interaction leading to trust or mistrust.