Neuroscience of free will Neuroscience of free will is the part of neurophilosophy that studies the interconnections between free will and neuroscience. As it has become possible to study the living brain, researchers have begun to watch decision making processes at work. Findings could carry implications for our sense of agency and for moral responsibility and the role of consciousness in general. Relevant findings include the pioneering study by Benjamin Libet and its subsequent redesigns; these studies were able to detect activity related to a decision to move, and the activity appears to begin briefly before people become conscious of it. Other studies try to predict activity before overt action occurs. Taken together, these various findings show that at least some actions - like moving a finger - are initiated unconsciously at first, and enter consciousness afterward. A monk meditates. Overview -Patrick Haggard discussing an in-depth experiment by Itzhak Fried Criticisms
Histrionic personality disorder - causes, DSM, ... Photo by: FlemishDreams Definition Histrionic personality disorder, often abbreviated as HPD, is a type of personality disorder in which the affected individual displays an enduring pattern of attention-seeking and excessively dramatic behaviors beginning in early adulthood and present across a broad range of situations. Individuals with HPD are highly emotional, charming, energetic, manipulative, seductive, impulsive, erratic, and demanding. Mental health professionals use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM ) to diagnose mental disorders. Description HPD has a unique position among the personality disorders in that it is the only personality disorder explicitly connected to a patient's physical appearance. Cognitive style can be defined as a way in which an individual works with and solves cognitive tasks such as reasoning, learning, thinking, understanding, making decisions, and using memory. Causes and symptoms Causes DEVELOPMENTAL CAUSES. Symptoms
Depressive realism Evidence for Evidence against When asked to rate both their performance and the performance of another, non-depressed individuals demonstrated positive bias when rating themselves but no bias when rating others. Criticism of the evidence Some have argued that the evidence is not more conclusive because there is no standard for "reality," the diagnoses are dubious, and the results may not apply to the real world. Because many studies rely on self-report of depressive symptoms, the diagnosis of depression in these studies may not be valid as self-reports are known to often be biased, necessitating the use of other objective measures. Due to most of these studies using designs that do not necessarily approximate real-world phenomena, the external validity of the depressive realism hypothesis is unclear. See also References Jump up ^ Alloy,L.B., Abramson,L.Y. (1988). Further reading Rachel Adelson (April 2005).
The Importance of Friendship When Harvard University social scientist Nicholas Christakis and University of California, San Diego professor James Fowler published their groundbreaking study about the contagion of obesity in 2007, the duo was particularly amused by the difference between how American and European headline writers framed the findings. The paper, published in The New England Journal of Medicine to much fanfare, revealed that weight gain could spread like a cold or flu, "infecting" friends and family out to three degrees of separation. In other words, if your friend's friend's friend gains weight, it increases your risk of getting fat—and the closer the degree of separation between you and the person beefing up, the more likely you'll pack on some pounds as well. "American headline writers all said, `Are you gaining weight? The American viewpoint tends toward individualism and self-focus. However, in this loss there's a gain: We may be under the sway of others, but they are also under our sway. 1. 2.
How to Detect Lies - body language, reactions, speech patterns Interesting Info -> Lying Index -> How to Detect Lies Become a Human Lie Detector (Part 1) Warning: sometimes ignorance is bliss. After gaining this knowledge, you may be hurt when it is obvious that someone is lying to you. Introduction to Detecting Lies: This knowledge is also useful for managers, employers, and for anyone to use in everyday situations where telling the truth from a lie can help prevent you from being a victim of fraud/scams and other deceptions. This is just a basic run down of physical (body language) gestures and verbal cues that may indicate someone is being untruthful. If you got here from somewhere else, be sure to check out our Lie Detection index page for more info including new research in the field of forensic psychology. Signs of Deception: Body Language of Lies: • Physical expression will be limited and stiff, with few arm and hand movements. • A person who is lying to you will avoid making eye contact. • Hands touching their face, throat & mouth. Final Notes:
Dunning–Kruger effect Cognitive bias in which people of low ability mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is In the field of psychology, the Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is. It is related to the cognitive bias of illusory superiority and comes from the inability of people to recognize their lack of ability. As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the cognitive bias of illusory superiority results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others Definition Original study Later studies On average, men overestimate their abilities by 30% and women by 15%. Underlying issues of numeracy Popular recognition
7 Social Hacks For Manipulating People 1. Whenever someone is angry and confrontational, stand next to them instead of in front of them. You won’t appear as so much of a threat, and they eventually calm down. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Madonna–whore complex In sexual politics the view of women as either Madonnas or whores limits women's sexual expression, offering two mutually exclusive ways to construct a sexual identity. The term is also used popularly, often with subtly different meanings. Causes Freud argued that the Madonna–whore complex is caused by oedipal castration fears which arise when a man experiences the affection he once felt for his mother with women he now sexually desires. In order to manage this anxiety, the man categorizes women into two groups: women he can admire and women he finds sexually attractive. This earlier theory is based not on oedipal-based castration anxiety but on man's primary hatred of women, stimulated by the child’s sense that he had been made to experience intolerable frustration and/or narcissistic injury at the hands of his mother. According to Freudian psychology, this complex often develops when the sufferer is raised by a cold and distant mother. In popular culture See also Notes
It's Not All About You (Chances are, others aren't judging you as harshy as you think, if at all.) From Los Angeles Times: It's not all about you Chances are, others aren't judging you as harshly as you think, if at all. By Benedict Carey Times Staff Writer January 13, 2003 Oh, things sure took a bad turn. Take a deep breath. A growing body of research shows that far fewer people notice our gaffes than we believe as we pace the floor in private, going over and over the faux pas. Learning to recognize this self-deception can soothe the anxiety that surrounds social interactions. The spotlight effect blinds us in several ways. A pioneer in this field, Tom Gilovich, a psychologist at Cornell, has demonstrated the same exaggerated misperceptions in several situations, such as group discussions about social issues. The findings apply to most of us, of course, but not to everybody -- some people really do live under a microscope, as a chosen way of life. Most of the time a mistake is just a mistake, not a death sentence. Yet we don't expect that same empathy for ourselves.
Micro Expressions - Research, Theory & Lying Interesting Info -> Lying Index & Body Language -> Micro Expressions Is the show "Lie to Me" for real? I am not a police interrogator, scientist, or other expert... I am however a mother & people watcher. Years ago, when I wrote articles on How to Detect Lies & Eye Movement and Lying -- I knew of the Micro expression theory, but had a difficult time researching the subject well enough to relay it into an article. Recently, I've come across tons of new research, websites, articles, videos, etc. about micro expressions and believe anyone who reads my old articles about lying & body language would benefit from micro expression research and theory. What are Micro Expressions? A micro expression is a momentary involuntary facial expression -- that people unconsciously display when they are hiding an emotion. The main points to remember are that micro expressions are: Brief - Micro-expressions can appear then disappear off the face in a fraction of a second. . and the Duchenne Smile. Dr. Dr. Dr.
Rosenhan experiment Rosenhan's study was done in two parts. The first part involved the use of healthy associates or "pseudopatients" (three women and five men, including Rosenhan himself) who briefly feigned auditory hallucinations in an attempt to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals in five different states in various locations in the United States. All were admitted and diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. After admission, the pseudopatients acted normally and told staff that they felt fine and had no longer experienced any additional hallucinations. All were forced to admit to having a mental illness and agree to take antipsychotic drugs as a condition of their release. The study concluded "it is clear that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric hospitals" and also illustrated the dangers of dehumanization and labeling in psychiatric institutions. The pseudopatient experiment The non-existent impostor experiment Impact and controversy Notes