Earthships - Trombe wall Passive solar design using an unvented Trombe wall and summer shading A Trombe wall is a passive solar building technique where a wall is built on the winter sun side of a building with a glass external layer and a high heat capacity internal layer separated by a layer of air. Heat in close to UV spectrum passes through the glass almost unhindered then is absorbed by the wall that then re-radiates in the far infrared spectrum which does not pass back through the glass easily, hence heating the inside of the building. Trombe walls are commonly used to absorb heat during sunlit hours of winter then slowly release the heat over night. Trombe walls work on the basic greenhouse principle that heat from the sun in the form of near-visible shorter-wavelength higher-energy ultraviolet radiation passes through glass largely unimpeded. Basic design A Northern hemisphere Trombe wall Air flow in a vented Trombe wall (Model by D. Trombe walls may be constructed with or without internal vents.
Earthship Earthships - Rammed earth A typical Hmong house-building technique in the tropical climate of Vietnam Overview of use Model showing construction of rammed-earth wall on foundation The construction of an entire wall begins with a temporary frame (formwork), usually made of wood or plywood, to act as a mould for the desired shape and dimensions of each wall section. Once a wall is complete, it is strong enough for the frames to be immediately removed. Where blocks made of rammed earth are used, they are generally stacked like regular blocks but are bonded together with a thin mud slurry instead of cement. Characteristics Surface detail of a rammed-earth wall: apart from the patches of damage, the surface shows regular horizontal lines from the wooden formwork used in constructing the wall and subtler horizontal strata from successive layers of compacted earth. The compressive strength of rammed earth can be up to 4.3 MPa (620 psi). Environmental aspects and sustainability History The U.S.
Earthship South and East view of an Earthship passive solar home Earthship typical floorplan Earthships are primarily designed to work as autonomous buildings using thermal mass construction and natural cross ventilation assisted by thermal draught (Stack effect) to regulate indoor temperature. Earthships are generally off-the-grid homes, minimizing their reliance on public utilities and fossil fuels. Earthships are built to utilize the available local resources, especially energy from the sun. For example, windows on sun-facing walls admit lighting and heating, and the buildings are often horseshoe-shaped to maximize natural light and solar-gain during winter months. History Michael Reynolds' first building, the Thumb House. A building being built of cans in the 1970s The design used with most earthships. Eventually, Reynolds' vision took the form of the common U-shaped earth-filled tire homes seen today. Systems Water Collection A domestic rainwater harvesting system
Earthships - Design Build Bluff DesignBuildBLUFF is a non-profit organization based in Park City, Utah that designs and builds sustainable housing, and is noted for its award-winning and innovative home designs. It is named after Bluff, Utah where their campus facility is located and because of Bluff's close proximity to the Navajo Nation. Each year, graduate-level architecture students from the University of Utah College of Architecture and Planning, and more recently, The University of Colorado Denver, design and build a home for a member of the Navajo Nation, at no charge to the home recipient. The homes are built with sustainable architecture techniques and feature locally produced construction materials. The program is currently expanding to other universities in The Four Corners region. History DesignBuildBLUFF was founded in 2000 by University of Utah Professor, Hank Louis. Design and construction Projects Gallery References External links
Earthship...des maisons pour pas cher! - wikistrike.over-blog.com Earthship...des maisons pour pas cher! Les Earthships (ou Vaisseaux terrestres) sont des habitations inventées par l'architecte américain Mickael Reynolds dans les années 70 avec comme perspective de créer des habitations totalement autonomes à moindre coût. Pour atteindre ses objectifs, Mickael Reynolds s'est basé sur : * la récupération de matériaux (pneus usés, des canettes, des bouteilles en verre, chutes de bois...), * la production d'énergie à l'aide de panneaux solaires, d'éoliennes ou d'autres sources d'énergies renouvelables, * une orientation au sud, * une construction de mur isolante massive, * la récupération et l'épuration des eaux de pluie. Le but ultime des Earthships étant l'auto-suffisance, on peut également trouver des toilettes sèches, et autres installations, afin de recycler les déchets humains pour rendre le raccordement aux égouts inutiles Concept Michael Reynolds commença dans les années 70 à concevoir une habitation durable et peu chère. Construction d'un Earthship
Earthships - Deep cycle battery A deep cycle battery traffic signal A deep-cycle battery is a lead-acid battery designed to be regularly deeply discharged using most of its capacity. In contrast, starter batteries (e.g. most automotive batteries) are designed to deliver short, high-current bursts for cranking the engine, thus frequently discharging only a small part of their capacity. A deep-cycle battery is designed to discharge between 45% and 75% of its capacity, depending on the manufacturer and the construction of the battery. Structure The structural difference between deep cycle batteries and cranking batteries is in the lead battery plates. Applications Flooding Flooded batteries will decompose some water from the electrolyte during charging, so regular maintenance of flooded batteries requires inspection of electrolyte level and addition of water. Recycling The vast majority of deep cycle batteries on the market today are lead acid batteries. See also References
Accueil - La serre du futurLa serre du futur | Ici et maintenant ! Earthships - Desulfation The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, its ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, makes it attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors. As they are inexpensive compared to newer technologies, lead-acid batteries are widely used even when surge current is not important and other designs could provide higher energy densities. Lead-acid battery sales account for 40–45% of the value from batteries sold worldwide (1999, not including China and Russia), a manufacturing market value of about US$15 billion. History Electrochemistry Discharge Fully discharged: two identical lead sulfate plates Negative plate reaction: Positive plate reaction:
Earthships - Lithium-ion battery Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy densities, no memory effect (note, however, that new studies have shown signs of memory effect in lithium-ion batteries), and only a slow loss of charge when not in use. Beyond consumer electronics, LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle and aerospace applications. For example, Lithium-ion batteries are becoming a common replacement for the lead acid batteries that have been used historically for golf carts and utility vehicles. Instead of heavy lead plates and acid electrolyte, the trend is to use a lightweight lithium/carbon negative electrodes and lithium iron phosphate positive electrodes. Lithium-ion batteries can provide the same voltage as lead-acid batteries, so no modification to the vehicle's drive system is required. History Before commercial introduction
Earthships - Lithium iron phosphate battery The lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) battery, also called LFP battery (with "LFP" standing for "lithium ferrophosphate"), is a type of rechargeable battery, specifically a lithium-ion battery, which uses LiFePO 4 as a cathode material. LiFePO 4 batteries have somewhat lower energy density than the more common LiCoO 2 design found in consumer electronics, but offers longer lifetimes, better power density (the rate that energy can be drawn from them) and are inherently safer. LiFePO 4 is finding a number of roles in vehicle use and backup power. History LiFePO 4 is a natural mineral of the olivine family. MIT has introduced a new coating that allows the ions to move more easily within the battery. Advantages and disadvantages The LiFePO 4 battery uses a lithium-ion-derived chemistry and shares many advantages and disadvantages with other Lithium-ion battery chemistries. LFP chemistry offers a longer cycle life than other lithium-ion approaches. Safety Usage
Earthships - Septic drain field Septic drain fields, also called leach fields or leach drains are used to remove contaminants and impurities from the liquid that emerges from the septic tank. A septic tank, the septic drain field, and the associated piping compose a complete septic system. The septic drain field is effective for disposal of organic materials readily catabolized by a microbial ecosystem. The drain field typically consists of an arrangement of trenches containing perforated pipes and porous material (often gravel) covered by a layer of soil to prevent animals and surface runoff from reaching the wastewater distributed within those trenches. Primary design considerations are hydraulic for the volume of wastewater requiring disposal and catabolic for the long-term biochemical oxygen demand of that wastewater. Hydraulic design Cross-section of weeping tile and leach field Wastewater from toilets is assumed to contain bacteria and viruses capable of causing disease. Catabolic design Notes
Earthships - Photovoltaics Photovoltaic SUDI shade is an autonomous and mobile station in France that provides energy for electric vehicles using solar energy. Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Solar photovoltaics is a sustainable energy source. In 2013, its fast-growing capacity increased by 36% to a running total of 136 GW, worldwide. Solar photovoltaics is now, after hydro and wind power, the third most important renewable energy source in terms of globally installed capacity. Solar cells Solar cells produce electricity directly from sunlight Average solar irradiance, watts per square metre. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Economics
Earthships - Concentrated solar power Concentrated solar power (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP) systems use mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is converted to heat, which drives a heat engine (usually a steam turbine) connected to an electrical power generator or powers a thermochemical reaction (experimental as of 2013). CSP is being widely commercialized and the CSP market has seen about 740 MW of generating capacity added between 2007 and the end of 2010. More than half of this (about 478 MW) was installed during 2010, bringing the global total to 1095 MW. CSP growth is expected to continue at a fast pace. As of January 2014, Spain had a total capacity of 2,204 MW making this country the world leader in CSP. CSP is not to be confused with concentrated photovoltaics (CPV). History Current technology Parabolic trough Source: