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Crusades

Crusades
The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church during the High Middle Ages through to the end of the Late Middle Ages. In 1095 Pope Urban II proclaimed the first crusade, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. Many historians and some of those involved at the time, like Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, give equal precedence to other papal-sanctioned military campaigns undertaken for a variety of religious, economic, and political reasons, such as the Albigensian Crusade, the Aragonese Crusade, the Reconquista, and the Northern Crusades.[1] Following the first crusade there was an intermittent 200-year struggle for control of the Holy Land, with six more major crusades and numerous minor ones. In 1291, the conflict ended in failure with the fall of the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land at Acre, after which Roman Catholic Europe mounted no further coherent response in the east. Terminology[edit] Related:  CroisadesTimelineHav a look later ...

Vocabulaire des croisades Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le vocabulaire des croisades et de la reconquista comprend un certain nombre de termes spécifiques à cette époque de conflits de religion. Proche-Orient[modifier | modifier le code] Entre 1095 et 1291 le Proche-Orient vit s'opposer croisés catholiques, byzantins orthodoxes et arabes musulmans. Les croisés nommaient les autres respectivement « grecs » et « sarrasins ». Ces dénominations et leur usages reflètent les revendications des chrétientés rivales d'Occident et d'Orient concernant la légitimité de l'héritage politique et religieux romain : l'Occident et l'Église de Rome se qualifient de « latins » et dénomment « grecs » les chrétiens orientaux (non sans mishellénisme) tandis que les chrétiens orientaux se qualifient de Romées et dénomment « Francs » les chrétiens catholiques, suivis en cela par les musulmans, bien que plus tard, le mot arabe roumi ait fini par désigner tous les chrétiens indifféremment de leur obédience[1].

Renaissance The Renaissance (UK /rɨˈneɪsəns/, US /ˈrɛnɨsɑːns/, French pronunciation: ​[ʁənɛsɑ̃s], from French: Renaissance "re-birth", Italian: Rinascimento, from rinascere "to be reborn")[1] was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Though availability of paper and the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe. In politics, the Renaissance contributed the development of the conventions of diplomacy, and in science an increased reliance on observation. Historians often argue this intellectual transformation was a bridge between the Middle Ages and Modern history. Overview[edit] The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Origins[edit] Black Death/Plague[edit]

Persian Empire Persian Empire may refer to: Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BCE), also called "First Persian Empire"Parthian Empire (247 BCE–224 AD), also called "Arsacid Empire"Sassanid Empire (224–651 CE), also called "Neo-Persian Empire" and "Second Persian Empire"History of Iran under: Safavid dynasty (1501–1736 CE)Afsharid dynasty (1736–1796 CE)Zand dynasty (1750–1794 CE)Qajar dynasty (1785–1925 CE)Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979 CE) Dark Ages (historiography) The Dark Ages is a historical periodization used originally for the Middle Ages, which emphasizes the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.[1][2] The label employs traditional light-versus-darkness imagery to contrast the "darkness" of the period with earlier and later periods of "light".[3] The period is characterized by a relative scarcity of historical and other written records at least for some areas of Europe, rendering it obscure to historians. The term "Dark Age" derives from the Latin saeculum obscurum, originally applied by Caesar Baronius in 1602 to a tumultuous period in the 10th and 11th centuries.[4] The term "Dark Ages" originally was intended to denote the entire period between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance; the term "Middle Ages" has a similar motivation, implying an intermediate period between Classical Antiquity and the Modern era.

Sources arabes sur les croisades Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Les sources arabes sur les croisades ont longtemps été négligées dans l'historiographie occidentale. Les ouvrages de l'écrivain franco-libanais Amin Maalouf Les croisades vues par les Arabes et Léon l'Africain ont relancé l'intérêt pour ces documents. D'après l'historien Richard Fletcher : « Pour les écrivains islamiques contemporains [des faits], les Croisades n’étaient guère que des escarmouches qui infligeaient des piqûres d’épingle aux confins du monde islamique. ». En fait il faut distinguer les États et dynasties musulmans de Syrie et d'Égypte pour qui les Francs étaient des adversaires (et parfois des alliés) directs des autres royaumes du monde musulman (Mésopotamie, Perse, Asie centrale, Maghreb) pour lesquels la réflexion de R. Fletcher s'applique davantage. Car, pendant ces croisades, il se passe bien d'autres événements dans le monde musulman. Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code] Études[modifier | modifier le code]

Timelines of History Babylonia Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic nation state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). It emerged as an independent state c. 1894 BC, with the city of Babylon as its capital. It was often involved in rivalry with its fellow Akkadian state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia. Babylonia became the major power in the region after Hammurabi (fl. c. 1792 - 1752 BC middle chronology, or c. 1696 – 1654 BC, short chronology) created an empire out of many of the territories of the former Akkadian Empire. The Babylonian state retained the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use (the language of its native populace), despite its Amorite founders and Kassite successors not being native Akkadians. The earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad (2334- 2279 BC), dating back to the 23rd century BC. Periods[edit] Old Pre-Babylonian period[edit] The Empire of Hammurabi Babylonian Decline

Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason) is an era from the 1650s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority. It was promoted by philosophes and local thinkers in urban coffeehouses, salons and masonic lodges. It challenged the authority of institutions that were deeply rooted in society, such as the Catholic Church; there was much talk of ways to reform society with toleration, science and skepticism. New ideas and beliefs spread around the continent and were fostered by an increase in literacy due to a departure from solely religious texts. Publications include Encyclopédie (1751–72) that was edited by Denis Diderot and (until 1759) Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Use of the term[edit] If there is something you know, communicate it. Chartier (1991) argues that the Enlightenment was only invented after the fact for a political goal. Goals[edit]

Portail:Croisades Une page de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le Portail des croisades[modifier] À partir de 1193, d'autres croisades sont lancées contre les païens baltes. Après le détournement de la quatrième croisade vers Constantinople (1204), le terme de « croisade » change de sens : il ne s'agit plus de délivrer et protéger les lieux saints, mais de combattre les ennemis de la chrétienté : Albigeois (1208-1229), l'empereur Frédéric II (1246), l'Aragon (1284), les Turcs (1396), les Hussites (1402-1434). Il y a actuellement 1 128 articles liés à ce portail dont : Lumière sur ... Le 13 mai, les croisés lèvent le siège devant Arqa et marche sur Jérusalem, déclinant une offre de paix faite par un officier fatimide. Ainsi commencent le royaume de Jérusalem et près de deux siècles de présence franque en Terre sainte. Erreur de référence : Des balises <ref> existent, mais aucune balise <references/> n’a été trouvée.

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