The Andrews Sisters Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Andrews. The Andrews Sisters Les Sœurs Andrews The Andrews Sisters en 1952. De haut en bas : LaVerne, Patty, Maxene. The Andrews Sisters (Les Sœurs Andrews) est un groupe de chanteuses américaines des années 1940, composé de 3 sœurs : LaVerne Andrews (contralto, 6 juillet 1911 - 8 mai 1967), Maxene Andrews (soprano, 3 janvier 1916 - 21 octobre 1995) et Patty Andrews (mezzo-soprano, 16 février 1918 - 30 janvier 2013), nées à Minneapolis dans le Minnesota. Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Les Sœurs Andrews accompagnées par l'orchestre d'Harry James chantent « Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree » dans le film Private Buckaroo de 1942. Filles d'un immigrant grec et d'une mère américaine d'origine norvégienne, elles naissent dans les années 1910 à Minneapolis dans le Minnesota. Elles apparurent aussi dans des films du duo Abbott et Costello, Deux nigauds soldats et Deux nigauds marins, sortis en 1941.
Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy - The Andrews Sisters Click here to submit corrections. How to read these chord charts Go back to the Table of Contents Go back to the Index Go back to my main page Bass trumpet The bass trumpet is a type of low trumpet which was first developed during the 1820s in Germany. It is usually pitched in 8' C or 9' B♭ today, but is sometimes built in E♭ and is treated as a transposing instrument sounding either an octave, a sixth or a ninth lower than written, depending on the pitch of the instrument. Having valves and the same tubing length, the bass trumpet is quite similar to the valve trombone, although the bass trumpet has a harder, more metallic tone. Certain modern manufacturers offering 'valve trombones' and 'bass trumpets' use the same tubing, valves, and bell, in different configurations - in these cases the bass trumpet is virtually identical to the valve trombone. History Wagner's bass trumpet Richard Wagner's first intention for Der Ring des Nibelungen was a bass trumpet in 13' E♭, based on the instruments he would have come across during his dealings with military bands. Notation The bass trumpet is usually notated in the treble clef.
Slide trumpet The slide trumpet is a type of trumpet that is fitted with a slide much like a trombone. The slide trumpet grew out of the war trumpet as used and developed in Western and Central Europe: Don Smithers in The Music and History of the Baroque Trumpet before 1721, argues that the slide grew out of the detachable leadpipe, and separated the use of the trumpet as a dance instrument from the trumpet as a signaling device in war. There are several types of slide trumpet of different places and eras. Medieval slide trumpet The Medieval slide trumpet, which developed from the war trumpet, and which developed into the trombone, the Renaissance slide trumpet, and the Baroque slide trumpet. Renaissance slide trumpet Deriving from early straight trumpets, the Renaissance slide trumpet was essentially a natural trumpet with a sliding leadpipe. Some slide trumpet designs saw use in England in the 18th century. Baroque slide trumpet Flatt trumpet (English slide trumpet) Notes
Trombone A person who plays the trombone is called a trombonist or trombone player. Construction A disassembled trombone. A tenor trombone mouthpiece The trombone is a predominantly cylindrical tube bent into an elongated "S" shape. The 'slide', the most distinctive feature of the trombone (cf. valve trombone), allows the player to extend the length of the air column, lowering the pitch. Like the trumpet, the trombone is considered a cylindrical bore instrument since it has extensive sections of tubing, principally in the slide section, that are of continuous diameter. History Renaissance and Baroque periods When the sackbut returned to common use again in England in the 18th century, Italian music was so influential that it was known as the "trombone", although other countries used the same name throughout the instrument's history, viz. Classical period Romantic period 19th-century orchestras 19th-century wind bands
Tuba History Prussian Patent No. 19 was granted to Wilhelm Friedrich Wieprecht and Johann Gottfried Moritz (1777–1840) on September 12, 1835 for a "basstuba" in F1. The original Wieprecht and Moritz instrument used five valves of the Berlinerpumpen type that were the forerunners of the modern piston valve. The first tenor tuba was invented in 1838 by Carl Wilhelm Moritz (1810–1855), son of Johann Gottfried Moritz. Adolphe Sax, like Wieprecht, was interested in marketing systems of instruments from soprano to bass, and developed a series of brass instruments known as saxhorns. Roles An orchestra usually has a single tuba, though an additional tuba may be asked for. Well known and influential parts for the tuba include: Types and construction A tuba with its tubing wrapped for placing the instrument on the player's lap is usually called a concert tuba or simply a tuba. Comparison of euphonium (left) and tuba (right) Size vs. pitch Valves Tuba with four rotary valves
Euphonium The euphonium derives its name from the Greek word euphonos, meaning "well-sounding" or "sweet-voiced" (eu means "well" or "good" and phonos means "of sound", so "of good sound"). The euphonium is a valved instrument; nearly all current models are piston valved, though rotary valved models do exist. A person who plays the euphonium is sometimes called a euphoniumist, euphophonist, or a euphonist, while British players often colloquially refer to themselves as euphists, or euphologists. Similarly, the instrument itself is often referred to as eupho or euph. Name recognition and misconceptions The euphonium is part of the family of brass band instruments. The so-called American baritone, featuring three valves on the front of the instrument and a curved, forward-pointing bell, was dominant in American school bands throughout most of the 20th century, its weight, shape and configuration conforming to the needs of the marching band. History and development
Bugle American naval bugler in 1917 Military bugle in Japan Bugle used by American militaries in the mid-19th century History Roman Bugle, 4th century. Added to the British Museum in 1904, this late Roman bugle is bent completely round upon itself to form a coil between the mouthpiece and the bell-end (the latter has been broken off). The first verifiable formal use of a brass bugle as a military signal device was the Halbmondbläser, or half-moon bugle, used in Hanover in 1758. Uses The bugle is used mainly in the military and Boy Scouts, where the bugle call is used to indicate the daily routines of camp. The bugle is used to play Taps or the Last Post in military rites at funerals. Civilian drum corps were founded using equipment sold off by the military in the early 1900s, and the last official change made to the military bugle (before its role as a signaling device was rendered obsolete by the radio) was to standardize them in the key of G. Variations Pitches of bugles
Piccolo trumpet Piccolotrumpet in B♭, with separate leadpipes to tune the instrument to B♭ (shorter) or A (longer) The smallest of the trumpet family is the piccolo trumpet, pitched one octave higher than the standard B♭ trumpet. Most piccolo trumpets are built to play in either B♭ or A, using a separate leadpipe for each key. The tubing in the B♭ piccolo trumpet is one-half the length of that in a standard B♭ trumpet. The piccolo trumpet in Bb is a transposing instrument, which sounds a minor seventh higher than written. The soprano trumpet in D, also known as the Bach trumpet, was invented in about 1890 by the Belgian instrument maker Victor Mahillon to play the high trumpet parts in music by Bach and Handel. The modern piccolo trumpet enables players to play the difficult trumpet parts of Baroque music, such as Bach's second Brandenburg concerto and B-minor Mass. The piccolo trumpet should not be confused with the pocket trumpet, which plays in the same pitch as the regular B♭ trumpet. See also
Trumpet There are several types of trumpet. The most common is a transposing instrument pitched in B♭ with a tubing length of about 148 cm. Earlier trumpets did not have valves, but modern instruments generally have either three piston valves or, more rarely, three rotary valves. Each valve increases the length of tubing when engaged, thereby lowering the pitch. A musician who plays the trumpet is called a trumpet player or trumpeter. History In medieval times, trumpet playing was a guarded craft, its instruction occurring only within highly selective guilds. Trumpet player c.1660-1665 Reproduction Baroque trumpet by Michael Laird Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded (than the trumpet). The attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, but this was a largely unsuccessful venture due to the poor quality of its sound. Construction
Bore (wind instruments) The bore of a wind instrument is its interior chamber that defines a flow path through which air travels and is set into vibration to produce sounds. The shape of the bore has a strong influence on the instrument's timbre. The diameter of a cylindrical bore remains constant along its length. The acoustic behavior depends on whether the instrument is stopped (closed at one end and open at the other), or open (at both ends). For an open pipe, the wavelength produced by the first normal mode (the fundamental note) is approximately twice the length of the pipe. Instruments having a cylindrical, or mostly cylindrical, bore include: The diameter of a conical bore varies linearly with distance from the end of the instrument. Instruments having a conical, or approximately conical, bore include: Sections of the bores of woodwind instruments deviate from a true cone or a cylinder. Acoustic resonance Jump up ^ "The Clarinet". Nederveen, Cornelis Johannes, Acoustical aspects of woodwind instruments.
Clarinet The word clarinet may have entered the English language via the French clarinette (the feminine diminutive of Old French clarin or clarion), or from Provençal clarin, "oboe". It "is plainly a diminutive of clarino, the Italian for trumpet", and the Italian clarinetto is the source of the name in many other languages. According to Johann Gottfried Walther, writing in 1732, the reason for the name was that "it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet". This may indicate its strident quality in the upper register, although in the low register it was "feeble and buzzing". The English form clarinet is found as early as 1733, and the now-archaic clarionet appears from 1784 until the early years of the 20th century. Characteristics Sound Bass clarinet Range Defining the top end of a clarinet’s range is difficult, since many advanced players can produce notes well above the highest notes commonly found in method books. Acoustics Schüller's quarter-tone clarinet