Ice Core The World Data Center (WDC) for Paleoclimatology, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the WDC for Glaciology (Snow and Ice) jointly maintain archives of ice core data from polar and low-latitude mountain glaciers and ice caps throughout the world. Proxy climate indicators include oxygen isotopes, methane concentrations, dust content, as well as many other parameters. Other Data Archives Additional sources for data and information on ice cores and climate science. Trieste 2008 Workshop Report on Ice Cores (link is external) Report on the sources of uncertainty in ice core climate proxy data.
Arctic sea ice reduction: the evidence, models, and global impacts Scientific discussion meeting organised by Dr Daniel Feltham, Dr Sheldon Bacon, Dr Mark Brandon and Professor (Emeritus) Julian Hunt FRS Arctic sea ice cover. Image credit Mark Brandon Event details This meeting explores the recent, rapid Arctic sea ice reduction. Download meeting programme Biographies of the organisers and speakers will be made available shortly. Attending this event This event is intended for researchers in relevant fields and is free to attend. Enquiries: Contact the events team Session 1: The evidence for Arctic sea ice reduction Session 2: Climate system understanding of sea ice The processes controlling sea ice evolution The impacts of Arctic sea ice loss
CoCoRaHS - Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network Ice core The length of the record depends on the depth of the ice core and varies from a few years up to 800 kyr (800,000 years) for the EPICA core. The time resolution (i.e. the shortest time period which can be accurately distinguished) depends on the amount of annual snowfall, and reduces with depth as the ice compacts under the weight of layers accumulating on top of it. Upper layers of ice in a core correspond to a single year or sometimes a single season. Deeper into the ice the layers thin and annual layers become indistinguishable. An ice core from the right site can be used to reconstruct an uninterrupted and detailed climate record extending over hundreds of thousands of years, providing information on a wide variety of aspects of climate at each point in time. Structure of ice sheets and cores Sampling the surface of Taku Glacier in Alaska. Ice sheets are formed from snow. The surface layer is snow in various forms, with air gaps between snowflakes. Characteristics of firn
Scientists debate polar sea-ice opposites 22 September 2014Last updated at 16:14 ET By Jonathan Amos Science correspondent, BBC News Explanations for the Antarctic abound, but there is "no single, underlying, silver-bullet cause" Arctic sea ice has passed its minimum summer extent, say polar experts meeting in London. The cover on 17 September dipped to 5.01 million sq km, and has risen slightly since then, suggesting the autumn re-freeze has now taken hold. This year's minimum is fractionally smaller than last year (5.10 million sq km), making summer 2014 the sixth lowest in the modern satellite record. The Antarctic, in contrast, continues its winter growth. It is still a few weeks away from reaching its maximum, which will continue the record-setting trend of recent years. Ice extent surrounding the White Continent has just topped 20 million sq km. The marine cover at both poles is the subject of discussion at a major UK Royal Society conference taking place this week. 'Normal year' The regions' geographies are quite different.
Climate Summary for Florida - March 2014 - Florida Climate Center Prepared by Melissa Griffin and David F. Zierden. Special thanks to L. Zuromski. Florida Climate Center The Florida State University Tallahassee, FL Average temperatures varied across the state in March. Table 1: March average temperatures and departures from normal (°F) for selected cities. Rainfall totals varied across the state in March. Table 2: March precipitation totals and departures from normal (inches) for selected cities. Table 3: Select daily rainfall records (inches) broken during March (compiled from NOAA, NWS). Figure 1: A graphical depiction of the monthly rainfall departure from normal (inches) for March is given in the figure below (courtesy of NOAA, NWS). ENSO-neutral conditions continue in the Pacific. Hazardous weather events in March. Table 4: Breakdown of storm reports submitted in Florida during March (compiled from Southeast Regional Climate Center). Agricultural and other climate-related impacts.
Isotope The three naturally-occurring isotopes of hydrogen. The fact that each isotope has one proton makes them all variants of hydrogen: the identity of the isotope is given by the number of neutrons. From left to right, the isotopes are protium (1H) with zero neutrons, deuterium (2H) with one neutron, and tritium (3H) with two neutrons. Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element such that, while all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom, they differ in neutron number. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place". Thus, different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table. For example, carbon-12, carbon-13 and carbon-14 are three isotopes of the element carbon with mass numbers 12, 13 and 14 respectively. Isotope vs. nuclide Notation Radioactive, primordial, and stable isotopes History Radioactive isotopes
Antarctic sea ice set for record high as Arctic heads for sixth lowest extent | Environment The extent of sea ice in Antarctica is set to reach a record high, scientists said on Tuesday, as they announced that Arctic sea ice appeared to have shrunk to its sixth lowest level ever. The NSIDC said that satellite data was expected to shortly confirm whether the maximum extent of sea ice at the opposite pole, in Antarctica, had set a new record. “Antarctic sea ice is poised to set a record maximum this year, now at 19.7 million sq km (7.6m sq m) and continuing to increase,” the centre, considered one of the world’s top authorities on sea ice data, said in a statement. Jan Lieser, of the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Co-operative Research Centre (CRC), told Australia’s ABC News that: “This is an area covered by sea ice which we’ve never seen from space before.” However, the centre noted that there had been a particularly strong retreat of sea ice in the Laptev Sea and although the reasons for that were not yet clear, sea temperatures there had been up to 5C higher than average.
Labs | Temperature Anomalies Enigma.io is a search engine and API for public data. We find certain datasets to be especially powerful because the underlying phenomena they capture have such a fundamental impact on our world. Climate affects our agricultural production, the price of gasoline, the livelihood of small businesses or temporary farm workers, and ultimately the sustainability of our species on this planet. On March 31st, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a report reaffirming the scientific community's consensus that the "worst is yet to come." At Enigma, our priority is to enable the exploration of climate change by bringing the data to the table. We are committed to connecting this entire world of public data to the developers, researchers, data scientists, and climatologists who are striving to make sense of our changing climate and its effect on our lives.
Stable Isotope Primer and Some Hydrological Applications Created by Monica Z. Bruckner, Montana State University, Bozeman What is a Stable Isotope? Click image to enlarge. Scientists extrude an ice core from its barrel with the utmost care. Ice cores can be analyzed for stable isotope ratios of oxygen to determine temperatures in the Earth's past. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons; that is, they have the same number of protons (positive charge) and electrons (negative charge), but differ in molecular weight due to different numbers of neutrons (neutral charge). How Are Stable Isotopes Used in Hydrology? Stable isotopes are useful tools for characterizing several different water dynamics within a watershed. What is Stable Isotope Fractionation and What Does it Tell Us? A schematic diagram of the isotope fractionation process via evaporation, condensation, and evapotranspiration (combination of evaporation and transpiration). Results Analysis - How Can We Tell Where the Water is From? Related Links
Why climate science denial courtesy of the New York Post measures five miles high | Graham Readfearn | Environment Thanks to a column that ran in the New York Post a few days ago I think I might now know the physical size of climate science denial – it’s about 500 cubic kilometres. For those still working in imperial measurements (that’s you America), this is about 120 cubic miles. The New York Post column by two climate science denialists claimed that “the ice caps aren’t melting”. Yet a recent assessment published in March 2014 in the journal The Cryosphere used new satellite measurements to estimate that the world’s major ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are now shrinking at the rate of about 500 cubic kilometres a year. That’s a lot of ice to deny is melting. But just how much is it? If you took all the ice disappearing every year from Antarctic and Greenland and covered Manhattan Island with it, you’d have a chunk of ice more than five miles high. New York Post climate fact fail DiCaprio has narrated and helped finance a series of short films on climate change, the first one titled “carbon”.
Lab 4: Climate History & the Cryosphere The lab activity described here was developed by Erin Bardar of TERC for the EarthLabs project. Use the button at the right to navigate to the student activity pages for this lab. To open the student pages in a new tab or window, right-click (control-click on a Mac) the "Open the Student Activity" button and choose "Open Link in New Window" or "Open Link in New Tab." Investigation Summary and Learning Objectives Ice sheets contain a record of hundreds of thousands of years of past climate, trapped in the ancient snow. In the first part of this lab, students will learn about land ice and the processes and timescales involved in glaciation. After completing this investigation, students will be able to: For more information about the topic, read the section titled Background Information under Additional Resources below. Activity Overview and Teaching Materials In Part B: Students watch a short video about how ice cores reveal information about past climate. Printable Materials Student Notebooks
New satellite maps show polar ice caps melting at 'unprecedented rate' | Environment German researchers have established the height of the Greenland and Antarctic ice caps with greater precision than ever before. The new maps they have produced show that the ice is melting at an unprecedented rate. The maps, produced with a satellite-mounted instrument, have elevation accuracies to within a few metres. Since Greenland’s ice cap is more than 2,000 metres thick on average, and the Antarctic bedrock supports 61% of the planet’s fresh water, this means that scientists can make more accurate assessments of annual melting. Dr Veit Helm and other glaciologists at the Alfred Wegener Institute’s Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany, report in the journal The Cryosphere that, between them, the two ice sheets are now losing ice at the unprecedented rate of 500 cubic kilometres a year. The measurements used to make the maps were taken by an instrument aboard the European Space Agency’s orbiting satellite CryoSat-2.