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Neurons, Synapses, Action Potentials, and Neurotransmission ...

Neurons, Synapses, Action Potentials, and Neurotransmission ...
Function of neurons Because our main interest lies in exploring how information processing occurs in the brain, we are going to ignore glia. But before we see how neurons process information (and what that means), you need to know a few things about the structure of neurons. Structure of neurons While there are as many as 10,000 specific types of neurons in the human brain, generally speaking, there are three kinds of neurons: motor neurons (for conveying motor information), sensory neurons (for conveying sensory information), and interneurons (which convey information between different types of neurons). Neuronal signaling Conduction Neurotransmission The following animation illustrates the difference between these two kinds of synapses. Copyright: 2008 You've reached the end of this component.

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Microarray Data :: Allen Brain Atlas: Human Brain Brain Explorer THE BRAIN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM A presynaptic neuron has several specialized structures that distinguish it from a postsynaptic neuron. The terminal button of the presynaptic neuron’s axon contains mitochondria as well as microtubules that transport the neurotransmitters from the cell body (where they are produced) to the tip of the axon. (click on 2. This terminal button also contains spherical vesicles filled with neurotransmitters. The synaptic gap that the neurotransmitters have to cross is very narrow–on the order of 0.02 micron. Across the gap, the neurotransmitters bind to membrane receptors: large proteins anchored in the cell membrane of the post-synaptic neuron.

10 Brilliant Social Psychology Studies | PsyBlog Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments. “I have been primarily interested in how and why ordinary people do unusual things, things that seem alien to their natures.Why do good people sometimes act evil?Why do smart people sometimes do dumb or irrational things?” –Philip Zimbardo Like eminent social psychologist Professor Philip Zimbardo (author of The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil), I’m also obsessed with why we do dumb or irrational things. The answer quite often is because of other people – something social psychologists have comprehensively shown. Over the past few months I’ve been describing 10 of the most influential social psychology experiments. Each one tells a unique, insightful story relevant to all our lives, every day. 1. The ‘halo effect’ is a classic social psychology experiment. » Read on about the halo effect -» 2. » Read on about cognitive dissonance -» 3. » Read on about Sherif’s Robbers Cave experiment -» 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The art of mindreading: Empathy or rational inference? The ability to infer what another person is thinking is an essential tool for social interaction and is known by neuroscientists as "Theory of Mind" (ToM), but how does the brain actually allow us to do this? We are able to rationally infer what someone knows, thinks, or intends, but we are also able to "slip into their shoes" and infer how they feel, and it seems that the brain processes these different types of information in different ways, as confirmed by a new report in the June 2010 issue of Elsevier's Cortex. Prof. The findings showed that the temporary interference in this particular area of the brain had an effect on the rational inference abilities (cognitive ToM) of the volunteers, but not on their abilities to infer emotions (affective ToM). Coauthor Prof.

Welcome to Android - PCWorld By now, you've probably heard an earful about how great Android phones are, how they will take over the mobile world, and how they do everything the Apple iPhone can't. But if you haven't yet fully explored an Android phone, you may be wondering what the hype is all about. First, a little history: Google's move into the mobile phone market started way back in 2005, when the Internet giant acquired a small startup company called Android, Inc. Rumors immediately began to surface that Google was developing its own challenge to the iPhone. But it wasn't just one phone--and Google wasn't the only company working on the project. Because Android is open-source, the platform has many advantages for consumers and developers. Another advantage of open-source is that Android isn't tied to a single device--whether it be a phone, a netbook, or a tablet. And of course, you also have considerable freedom in selecting a wireless network.

Social Skills and Autism - Autism and Social Skills Training Why Would a Person With Autism Need to See a Social Skills Therapist? One of the most significant problems for people on the autism spectrum is difficulty in social interaction. This difficulty is, of course, made more significant by problems with speech and language. But autism also seems to create problems with "mind reading" -- that is, with knowing what another person might be thinking. Most people can observe others and guess, through a combination of tone and body language, what's "really" going on. This "mind blindness" can lead even the highest-functioning person on the autism spectrum to make social blunders that cause all kinds of problems. What Exactly IS a Social Skills Therapist? As autism spectrum disorders have become more and more common, a sort of industry has grown up around teaching social skills to both children and adults. In recent years, "do it yourself" social skills teaching tools for parents and adults on the autism spectrum have hit the market.

heimer's Association - What Is Alzheimer's Alzheimer's and dementia basics Alzheimer's is the most common form of dementia, a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases. Get our weekly e-newsletter There is a lot to know about living with Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's is not a normal part of aging, although the greatest known risk factor is increasing age, and the majority of people with Alzheimer's are 65 and older. Sign up for our weekly e-newsletter Learn more about managing the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Symptoms of Alzheimer's The most common early symptom of Alzheimer's is difficulty remembering newly learned information. Just like the rest of our bodies, our brains change as we age . The most common early symptom of Alzheimer's is difficulty remembering newly learned information because Alzheimer's changes typically begin in the part of the brain that affects learning.

Asperger Relationships There is hope for Asperger relationships. Source Are Asperger relationships difficult to maintain? The social skill and communication issues inherent in Asperger's syndrome can challenge some relationships. However, there are ways for both the person with Aspergers and loved ones to successfully work through the issues. A person with Aspergers can form meaningful and close relationships with parents, spouses, extended family and friends. Common Asperger Relationship Issues A person with Aspergers and his loved ones may find themselves in conflicts that have root in key aspects of the condition. Emotional Response A person with Aspergers has problems understanding another person's emotions. Sometimes a neurotypical person may mistakenly interpret a person with Aspergers' emotional response or lack of response as an inability to feel emotion. Communication and Social Skills Problems Asperger's syndrome causes problems with language, communication and social interaction. Hope for Relationships

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms and Related Conditions Why do I need to register or sign in for WebMD to save? We will provide you with a dropdown of all your saved articles when you are registered and signed in. The carpal tunnel is the passageway in the wrist and consists of the arching carpal bones (eight bones in the wrist) and the ligament connecting the pillars of the arch (the transverse carpal ligament). The median nerve and the tendons that connect the fingers to the muscles of the forearm pass through the narrow tunnel. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when the median nerve is compressed because of swelling of the nerve or tendons or both. While there are many possible causes of carpal tunnel syndrome, the vast majority of people with the condition have no known cause. What Are the Symptoms of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? Usually, people with carpal tunnel syndrome first notice that their fingers "fall asleep" and become numb at night. Continue reading below... What Happens in Severe Cases of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

What Everybody Ought to Know About Aspergers and Marriage couple in love, by pedrosimoes on Flickr Creative Commons Young love. It's so beautiful, so wonderful, it takes your breath away. Like any other romantic couple, two adults who are in love in an Asperger's relationship are on cloud nine when they first meet. Reality sinks in once the emotional high wears off, and if there are not some tools for navigating the journey, Aspie-NT couples may find themselves at-risk. There are many successful Aspie-Aspie marriages and Aspie-NT marriages. For every successful Aspie-NT committed relationship, there are many others who are struggling, teetering, and on the brink of failing. I am borrowing the ideas for this article from Solutions for Adults with Asperger Syndrome (2005), and specifically to psychologist Dr. Building Understanding Between AS and NT Worlds Here are some autism spectrum facts about individuals with Aspergers that it's important for NT partners to understand: Steps to Help Make An AS-NT Relationship Work Here's a quote from the site:

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Fact Sheet Treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome should begin as early as possible, under a doctor's direction. Underlying causes such as diabetes or arthritis should be treated first. Initial treatment generally involves resting the affected hand and wrist for at least 2 weeks, avoiding activities that may worsen symptoms, and immobilizing the wrist in a splint to avoid further damage from twisting or bending. Non-surgical treatments Drugs - In special circumstances, various drugs can ease the pain and swelling associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. Exercise - Stretching and strengthening exercises can be helpful in people whose symptoms have abated. Alternative therapies - Acupuncture and chiropractic care have benefited some patients but their effectiveness remains unproved. Surgery Carpal tunnel release is one of the most common surgical procedures in the United States. Although symptoms may be relieved immediately after surgery, full recovery from carpal tunnel surgery can take months.

Families of Adults Affected By Asperger's Syndrome