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Piaget's theory of cognitive development

Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence, first developed by Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980). It is primarily known as a developmental stage theory but, in fact, it deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans come gradually to acquire, construct, and use it. To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. Accordingly, children construct an understanding of the world around them, then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment.[1] Moreover, Piaget claimed the idea that cognitive development is at the center of human organism, and language is contingent on cognitive development. Nature of intelligence: operative and figurative[edit] Operative intelligence is the active aspect of intelligence. Related:  Learner-Centered Instructionfields related to Cognitive Psychology

Learner-Centered Teaching Learner-Centered Teaching Phyllis Blumberg, Ph.D. Director of the Teaching and Learning Center University of the Sciences in Philadelphia 1. Most of this material comes from Blumberg, P. (2008) Developing Learner-Centered Teachers: A Practical Guide for Faculty. This site contains links to presentation or workshops I have done at various places over the past few years. Versions of most of these workshops have been offered repeatedly to new faculty at the University of the Sciences, at the Lilly Conference, The Teaching Professor Conference, the POD Network conference and to faculty at various colleges and universities in the USA and around the world and trainers for the United States Army. • Implementing Learner-centered approaches in your teaching • The purposes and processes of assessment: How you assess your students will impact how and what they learn. 2. Traditionally instructors focused on what they did, and not on what the students are learning. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4. Rubrics 1. 5. 6.

Metacognition Metacognition is defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing". It comes from the root word "meta", meaning beyond.[1] It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving.[1] There are generally two components of metacognition: knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition.[2] Metamemory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition.[3] Differences in metacognitive processing across cultures have not been widely studied, but could provide better outcomes in cross-cultural learning between teachers and students.[4] Some evolutionary psychologists hypothesize that metacognition is used as a survival tool, which would make metacognition the same across cultures.[4] Writings on metacognition can be traced back at least as far as De Anima and the Parva Naturalia of the Greek philosopher Aristotle.[5] Definitions[edit] [edit]

Kohlberg's Moral Stages W.C. Crain. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136. An outstanding example of research in the Piagetian tradition is the work of Lawrence Kohlberg. Kohlberg, who was born in 1927, grew up in Bronxville, New York, and attended the Andover Academy in Massachusetts, a private high school for bright and usually wealthy students. Kohlberg is an informal, unassuming man who also is a true scholar; he has thought long and deeply about a wide range of issues in both psychology and philosophy and has done much to help others appreciate the wisdom of many of the "old psychologists," such as Rousseau, John Dewey, and James Mark Baldwin. Piaget studied many aspects of moral judgment, but most of his findings fit into a two-stage theory. At approximately the same time--10 or 11 years--children's moral thinking undergoes other shifts. Intellectual development, however, does not stop at this point. The basic interview consists of a series of dilemmas such as the following: Summary

Biography of Maria Montessori | American Montessori Society Maria Montessori was an Italian physician, educator, and innovator, acclaimed for her educational method that builds on the way children naturally learn. She opened the first Montessori school—the Casa dei Bambini, or Children’s House—in Rome on January 6, 1907. Subsequently, she traveled the world and wrote extensively about her approach to education, attracting many devotees. There are now more than 22,000 Montessori schools in at least 110 countries worldwide. Maria Montessori was born on August 31, 1870, in the provincial town of Chiaravalle, Italy. Beginning in her early childhood years, Maria grew up in Rome, a paradise of libraries, museums, and fine schools. Breaking Barriers Maria was a sterling student, confident, ambitious, and unwilling to be limited by traditional expectations for women. In time, however, she changed her mind, deciding to become a doctor instead. When she graduated from medical school in 1896, she was among Italy’s first female physicians. Birth of a Movement

Descriptive knowledge Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions. This distinguishes descriptive knowledge from what is commonly known as "know-how", or procedural knowledge (the knowledge of how, and especially how best, to perform some task), and "knowing of", or knowledge by acquaintance (the knowledge of something's existence). The difference between knowledge and beliefs is as follows: A belief is an internal thought or memory which exists in one's mind. Most people accept that for a belief to be knowledge it must be, at least, true and justified. Acquiring knowledge[edit] People have used many methods to try to gain knowledge. Types of knowledge[edit] Often knowledge is gained by combining or extending other knowledge in various ways. Inferential knowledge is based on reasoning from facts or from other inferential knowledge such as a theory. From Knowledge.

Forer effect A related and more general phenomenon is that of subjective validation.[1] Subjective validation occurs when two unrelated or even random events are perceived to be related because a belief, expectation, or hypothesis demands a relationship. Thus people seek a correspondence between their perception of their personality and the contents of a horoscope. Forer's demonstration[edit] On average, the students rated its accuracy as 4.26 on a scale of 0 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). In another study examining the Forer effect, students took the MMPI personality assessment and researchers evaluated their responses. The Forer effect is also known as the "Barnum effect". Repeating the study[edit] Two factors are important in producing the effect, according to the findings of replication studies. The effect is consistently found when the assessment statements are vague. In 2011, the study was repeated with the statements altered so that they applied to organisations rather than individuals.

Student-Centered Teaching In the traditional approach to college teaching, most class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually on assignments, and cooperation is discouraged. Learner-centered teaching methods shift the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners. These methods include active learning, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate, or brainstorm during class; cooperative learning, in which students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure both positive interdependence and individual accountability; and inductive teaching and learning, in which students are first presented with challenges (questions or problems) and learn the course material in the context of addressing the challenges. Videos and Publications on Active Learning Publications on Cooperative Learning General principles and strategies D.B. R.M. R.M. Dr. Return to Dr.

Procedural knowledge Procedural knowledge, also known as imperative knowledge, is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. See below for the specific meaning of this term in cognitive psychology and intellectual property law. Procedural knowledge, or implicit knowledge is different from other kinds of knowledge, such as declarative knowledge, in that it can be directly applied to a task. In some legal systems, such procedural knowledge has been considered the intellectual property of a company, and can be transferred when that company is purchased. One limitation of procedural knowledge is its job-dependence; thus it tends to be less general than declarative knowledge. One advantage of procedural knowledge is that it can involve more senses, such as hands-on experience, practice at solving problems, understanding of the limitations of a specific solution, etc. Contexts[edit] Artificial intelligence[edit] Cognitive psychology[edit] Educational implications[edit] Intellectual property law[edit]

Flynn effect Test score increases have been continuous and approximately linear from the earliest years of testing to the present. For the Raven's Progressive Matrices test, subjects born over a 100-year period were compared in Des Moines, Iowa, and separately in Dumfries, Scotland. Improvements were remarkably consistent across the whole period, in both countries.[1] This effect of an apparent increase in IQ has also been observed in various other parts of the world, though the rates of increase vary.[2] There are numerous proposed explanations of the Flynn effect, as well as some skepticism about its implications. Similar improvements have been reported for other cognitions such as semantic and episodic memory.[3] Recent research suggests that the Flynn effect may have ended in at least a few developed nations, possibly allowing national differences in IQ scores[4] to diminish if the Flynn effect continues in nations with lower average national IQs.[5] Origin of term[edit] Rise in IQ[edit]

Theories of Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky. | Psycho Hawks Theories of Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky. November 3, 2010 at 3:00 pm For my previous post on Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, click here. As with my previous post, I will explain a little about Vygotsky and his life before we look at his theory. Lev Vygotsky Born in Orsha, a part of the Russian Empire (now known as Belarus) on 17th November 1896, Vygotsky was a pioneer of psychology; he contributed much important research to the field. Vygotsky rarely conducted research; he was more focused on constructing the best possible theory on the transfer of knowledge. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development. As stated above, Vygotsky believed children’s thinking is affected by their knowledge of the social community (which is learnt from either technical or psychological cultural tools). He described something known as the zone of proximal development (ZPD), which is a key feature of his theory. Level 1 – the ‘present level of development’. Diagram to demonstrate the ZPD.

Knowledge organization The term knowledge organization (KO) (or "organization of knowledge", "organization of information" or "information organization") designates a field of study related to Library and Information Science (LIS). In this meaning, KO is about activities such as document description, indexing and classification performed in libraries, databases, archives etc. These activities are done by librarians, archivists, subject specialists as well as by computer algorithms. KO as a field of study is concerned with the nature and quality of such knowledge organizing processes (KOP) as well as the knowledge organizing systems (KOS) used to organize documents, document representations and concepts. There exist different historical and theoretical approaches to and theories about organizing knowledge, which are related to different views of knowledge, cognition, language, and social organization. Traditional human-based activities are increasingly challenged by computer-based retrieval techniques.

Apoptosis In contrast to necrosis, which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, in general apoptosis confers advantages during an organism's lifecycle. For example, the separation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the digits apoptose. Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and quickly remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage.[5] Research in and around apoptosis has increased substantially since the early 1990s. Discovery and etymology[edit] German scientist Carl Vogt was first to describe the principle of apoptosis in 1842. John E. In Greek, apoptosis translates to the "dropping off" of petals or leaves from plants or trees. In the original Kerr Wyllie and Currie paper, British Journal of Cancer, 1972 Aug;26(4):239-57, there is a footnote regarding the pronunciation: Process[edit]

Learner Autonomy: A Guide to Developing Learner Responsibility - Agota Scharle, Anita Szabo