Kohlberg's Moral Stages W.C. Crain. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136. An outstanding example of research in the Piagetian tradition is the work of Lawrence Kohlberg. Kohlberg, who was born in 1927, grew up in Bronxville, New York, and attended the Andover Academy in Massachusetts, a private high school for bright and usually wealthy students. Kohlberg is an informal, unassuming man who also is a true scholar; he has thought long and deeply about a wide range of issues in both psychology and philosophy and has done much to help others appreciate the wisdom of many of the "old psychologists," such as Rousseau, John Dewey, and James Mark Baldwin. Piaget studied many aspects of moral judgment, but most of his findings fit into a two-stage theory. At approximately the same time--10 or 11 years--children's moral thinking undergoes other shifts. Intellectual development, however, does not stop at this point. The basic interview consists of a series of dilemmas such as the following: Summary
Learner-Centered Teaching Learner-Centered Teaching Phyllis Blumberg, Ph.D. Director of the Teaching and Learning Center University of the Sciences in Philadelphia 1. Most of this material comes from Blumberg, P. (2008) Developing Learner-Centered Teachers: A Practical Guide for Faculty. This site contains links to presentation or workshops I have done at various places over the past few years. Versions of most of these workshops have been offered repeatedly to new faculty at the University of the Sciences, at the Lilly Conference, The Teaching Professor Conference, the POD Network conference and to faculty at various colleges and universities in the USA and around the world and trainers for the United States Army. • Implementing Learner-centered approaches in your teaching • The purposes and processes of assessment: How you assess your students will impact how and what they learn. 2. Traditionally instructors focused on what they did, and not on what the students are learning. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4. Rubrics 1. 5. 6.
Forer effect A related and more general phenomenon is that of subjective validation. Subjective validation occurs when two unrelated or even random events are perceived to be related because a belief, expectation, or hypothesis demands a relationship. Thus people seek a correspondence between their perception of their personality and the contents of a horoscope. Forer's demonstration On average, the students rated its accuracy as 4.26 on a scale of 0 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). In another study examining the Forer effect, students took the MMPI personality assessment and researchers evaluated their responses. The Forer effect is also known as the "Barnum effect". Repeating the study Two factors are important in producing the effect, according to the findings of replication studies. The effect is consistently found when the assessment statements are vague. In 2011, the study was repeated with the statements altered so that they applied to organisations rather than individuals.
Biography of Maria Montessori | American Montessori Society Maria Montessori was an Italian physician, educator, and innovator, acclaimed for her educational method that builds on the way children naturally learn. She opened the first Montessori school—the Casa dei Bambini, or Children’s House—in Rome on January 6, 1907. Subsequently, she traveled the world and wrote extensively about her approach to education, attracting many devotees. There are now more than 22,000 Montessori schools in at least 110 countries worldwide. Maria Montessori was born on August 31, 1870, in the provincial town of Chiaravalle, Italy. Beginning in her early childhood years, Maria grew up in Rome, a paradise of libraries, museums, and fine schools. Breaking Barriers Maria was a sterling student, confident, ambitious, and unwilling to be limited by traditional expectations for women. In time, however, she changed her mind, deciding to become a doctor instead. When she graduated from medical school in 1896, she was among Italy’s first female physicians. Birth of a Movement
Flynn effect Test score increases have been continuous and approximately linear from the earliest years of testing to the present. For the Raven's Progressive Matrices test, subjects born over a 100-year period were compared in Des Moines, Iowa, and separately in Dumfries, Scotland. Improvements were remarkably consistent across the whole period, in both countries. This effect of an apparent increase in IQ has also been observed in various other parts of the world, though the rates of increase vary. There are numerous proposed explanations of the Flynn effect, as well as some skepticism about its implications. Similar improvements have been reported for other cognitions such as semantic and episodic memory. Recent research suggests that the Flynn effect may have ended in at least a few developed nations, possibly allowing national differences in IQ scores to diminish if the Flynn effect continues in nations with lower average national IQs. Origin of term Rise in IQ
Student-Centered Teaching In the traditional approach to college teaching, most class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually on assignments, and cooperation is discouraged. Learner-centered teaching methods shift the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners. These methods include active learning, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate, or brainstorm during class; cooperative learning, in which students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure both positive interdependence and individual accountability; and inductive teaching and learning, in which students are first presented with challenges (questions or problems) and learn the course material in the context of addressing the challenges. Videos and Publications on Active Learning Publications on Cooperative Learning General principles and strategies D.B. R.M. R.M. Dr. Return to Dr.
Apoptosis In contrast to necrosis, which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, in general apoptosis confers advantages during an organism's lifecycle. For example, the separation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the digits apoptose. Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and quickly remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage. Research in and around apoptosis has increased substantially since the early 1990s. Discovery and etymology German scientist Carl Vogt was first to describe the principle of apoptosis in 1842. John E. In Greek, apoptosis translates to the "dropping off" of petals or leaves from plants or trees. In the original Kerr Wyllie and Currie paper, British Journal of Cancer, 1972 Aug;26(4):239-57, there is a footnote regarding the pronunciation: Process
Theories of Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky. | Psycho Hawks Theories of Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky. November 3, 2010 at 3:00 pm For my previous post on Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, click here. As with my previous post, I will explain a little about Vygotsky and his life before we look at his theory. Lev Vygotsky Born in Orsha, a part of the Russian Empire (now known as Belarus) on 17th November 1896, Vygotsky was a pioneer of psychology; he contributed much important research to the field. Vygotsky rarely conducted research; he was more focused on constructing the best possible theory on the transfer of knowledge. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development. As stated above, Vygotsky believed children’s thinking is affected by their knowledge of the social community (which is learnt from either technical or psychological cultural tools). He described something known as the zone of proximal development (ZPD), which is a key feature of his theory. Level 1 – the ‘present level of development’. Diagram to demonstrate the ZPD.
Recapitulation theory The theory of recapitulation, also called the biogenetic law or embryological parallelism— often expressed in Ernst Haeckel's phrase as "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"—is a largely discredited biological hypothesis that in developing from embryo to adult, animals go through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of their remote ancestors. With different formulations, such ideas have been applied and extended to several fields and areas, including the origin of language, religion, biology, cognition and mental activities, anthropology, education theory and developmental psychology. While examples of embryonic stages show that molecular features of ancestral organisms exist, the theory of recapitulation itself has been viewed within the field of developmental biology as a historical side-note rather than as dogma. In contrast, there is no consensus against the validity of the theory outside biology. Origins Haeckel
Learner Autonomy: A Guide to Developing Learner Responsibility - Agota Scharle, Anita Szabo Kübler-Ross model The model was first introduced by Swiss-American Psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross in her 1969 book, On Death and Dying, and was inspired by her work with terminally ill patients. Motivated by the lack of curriculum in medical schools on the subject of death and dying, Kübler-Ross began a project which examined death and those faced with it while working as an instructor at the University of Chicago's medical school. Kübler-Ross' project evolved into a series of seminars which, along with patient interviews and previous research became the foundation for her book, and revolutionized how the U.S. medical field takes care of the terminally ill. In the decades since the publication of "On Death and Dying", the Kübler-Ross concept has become largely accepted by the general public; however, its validity has yet to be consistently supported by the majority of research studies that have examined it. Stages The stages, popularly known by the acronym DABDA, include:
MIT World | Distributed Intelligence Student-Centered Learning: The First Steps Are the Hardest Ones Educator Melba Smithwick never had too much difficulty trying out new ideas. But when a new principal encouraged a small group of teachers to give students more say in their learning, Smithwick hesitated. Included: Smithwick shares her first, tentative steps. I have always been a risk-taker. That year, in the school where I taught math, five teachers were assigned to a take a yearlong course in student-centered learning, attending one session each month. During the first months of the course, I began to think more deeply about my instructional practices and the projects I assigned my students. I always thought my classroom was student-centered. After more reading, more informal discussions with my principal, and more training, however, I accidentally stumbled upon a true student-centered learning situation in my very own classroom. Sam loved to stir up the class and then sit back and watch us go at it. As the class wound to an end that day, several students asked me if Sam was correct.