background preloader

Piaget's theory of cognitive development

Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence, first developed by Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980). It is primarily known as a developmental stage theory but, in fact, it deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans come gradually to acquire, construct, and use it. To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. Accordingly, children construct an understanding of the world around them, then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment.[1] Moreover, Piaget claimed the idea that cognitive development is at the center of human organism, and language is contingent on cognitive development. Nature of intelligence: operative and figurative[edit] Operative intelligence is the active aspect of intelligence. Related:  Learner-Centered Instruction

Learner-Centered Teaching Learner-Centered Teaching Phyllis Blumberg, Ph.D. Director of the Teaching and Learning Center University of the Sciences in Philadelphia 1. Most of this material comes from Blumberg, P. (2008) Developing Learner-Centered Teachers: A Practical Guide for Faculty. This site contains links to presentation or workshops I have done at various places over the past few years. Versions of most of these workshops have been offered repeatedly to new faculty at the University of the Sciences, at the Lilly Conference, The Teaching Professor Conference, the POD Network conference and to faculty at various colleges and universities in the USA and around the world and trainers for the United States Army. • Implementing Learner-centered approaches in your teaching • The purposes and processes of assessment: How you assess your students will impact how and what they learn. 2. Traditionally instructors focused on what they did, and not on what the students are learning. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4. Rubrics 1. 5. 6.

LE CERVEAU À TOUS LES NIVEAUX! La diversité des personnalités et des comportements humains est le produit de la singularité du cerveau de chaque individu. Celle-ci se constitue d’abord à travers les premières étapes de la construction des circuits cérébraux, où des mécanismes intrinsèques mettent en place les circuits nerveux à l’origine d’une vaste palette de comportements instinctifs, que ce soit pour trouver de la nourriture, pour se défendre ou pour s’accoupler. Mais la construction du système nerveux des animaux, et donc aussi de l’être humain, est également influencée par l’expérience. Les interactions avec l’environnement produisent certains patterns d’activité nerveuse qui vont façonner les circuits cérébraux. Les périodes critiques sont un phénomène général que l’on retrouve dans plusieurs systèmes sensoriels. Au cours des premiers mois de leur vie, les nourrissons n’ont pas de prédispositions innées pour les phonèmes caractéristiques de telle ou telle langue.

Biography of Maria Montessori | American Montessori Society Maria Montessori was an Italian physician, educator, and innovator, acclaimed for her educational method that builds on the way children naturally learn. She opened the first Montessori school—the Casa dei Bambini, or Children’s House—in Rome on January 6, 1907. Subsequently, she traveled the world and wrote extensively about her approach to education, attracting many devotees. There are now more than 22,000 Montessori schools in at least 110 countries worldwide. Maria Montessori was born on August 31, 1870, in the provincial town of Chiaravalle, Italy. Beginning in her early childhood years, Maria grew up in Rome, a paradise of libraries, museums, and fine schools. Breaking Barriers Maria was a sterling student, confident, ambitious, and unwilling to be limited by traditional expectations for women. In time, however, she changed her mind, deciding to become a doctor instead. When she graduated from medical school in 1896, she was among Italy’s first female physicians. Birth of a Movement

Student-Centered Teaching In the traditional approach to college teaching, most class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually on assignments, and cooperation is discouraged. Learner-centered teaching methods shift the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners. These methods include active learning, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate, or brainstorm during class; cooperative learning, in which students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure both positive interdependence and individual accountability; and inductive teaching and learning, in which students are first presented with challenges (questions or problems) and learn the course material in the context of addressing the challenges. Videos and Publications on Active Learning Publications on Cooperative Learning General principles and strategies D.B. R.M. R.M. Dr. Return to Dr.

JEAN PIAGET « Il a abordé des questions jusque-là exclusivement philosophiques d'une manière résolument expérimentale (empirical) et a constitué l'épistémologie comme une science séparée de la philosophie, mais reliée à toutes les sciences humaines. » Ajoutons, avec Piaget lui-même : « et d'abord à la biologie ». Cet hommage de l'American Psychological Association est celui dont Piaget s'enorgueillissait le plus, où il se reconnaissait le mieux. Ainsi, l'homme qui a consacré à la pensée de l'enfant tant de pages et tant d'observations minutieuses, celui qu'on considère unanimement comme le plus grand psychologue du développement cognitif, accepte volontiers qu'on regarde son travail psychologique comme un sous-produit (by product) de son œuvre. Nous préférerions dire : un détour. Mais un détour obligé. Né à Neuchâtel (Suiss [...]

Theories of Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky. | Psycho Hawks Theories of Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky. November 3, 2010 at 3:00 pm For my previous post on Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, click here. As with my previous post, I will explain a little about Vygotsky and his life before we look at his theory. Lev Vygotsky Born in Orsha, a part of the Russian Empire (now known as Belarus) on 17th November 1896, Vygotsky was a pioneer of psychology; he contributed much important research to the field. Vygotsky rarely conducted research; he was more focused on constructing the best possible theory on the transfer of knowledge. Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development. As stated above, Vygotsky believed children’s thinking is affected by their knowledge of the social community (which is learnt from either technical or psychological cultural tools). He described something known as the zone of proximal development (ZPD), which is a key feature of his theory. Level 1 – the ‘present level of development’. Diagram to demonstrate the ZPD.

Learner Autonomy: A Guide to Developing Learner Responsibility - Agota Scharle, Anita Szabo piaget jean, psychologue enfant theorie de l'intelligence, psychologie therapie psychiatrique Piaget - formation pour Infirmier de Secteur Psychiatrique - cours de Mr Giffard - Jean Piaget Jean PIAGET (1896-1980) Psychologue Suisse passionné de sciences naturelles, son œuvre est centrée sur le développement cognitif, théorie opératoire de l'intelligence, et sur l'épistémologie génétique, théorie générale de la genèse des connaissances, applicable au monde du vivant. Sa méthode : il étudiera comment se développe et évolue le monde du réel, avec l'acquisition du mot, du chiffre, du symbole par observation directe de ses propres enfants (méthode passive) et expérimentation avec des objets précis et des dialogues avec l'enfant (méthode active). Jean Piaget a été biologiste à 11 ans, puis zoologue, philosophe, physicien et enfin psychologue. Jean Piaget se posera plusieurs questionnements. Quelle différence existe-t-il entre la pensée de l'enfant et celle de l'adulte? Théorie de l'intelligence Adaptation. Intégration. Jean Piaget distinguera 4 stades de l'intelligence. Haut de Page

MIT World | Distributed Intelligence Student-centred learning Student-centered learning, that is, putting students interests first, is in contrast to traditional education, by proponents of "student-centered learning" also dubbed "teacher-centred learning". Student-centred learning is focused on each student's interests, abilities, and learning styles, placing the teacher as a facilitator of learning. This classroom teaching method acknowledges student voice as central to the learning experience for every learner, and differs from many other learning methodologies. In a student-centred classroom, students choose what they will learn, how they will learn, and how they will assess their own learning. Teacher-centred learning has the teacher at its centre in an active role and students in a passive, receptive role. Background[edit] In traditional education methodologies, teachers direct the learning process and students assume a receptive role in their education. These changes have impacted educator's methods of teaching and the way students learn.

Jean Piaget (auteur de La Psychologie de l'enfant) - Babelio Où va l'éducation de Jean Piaget Les deux défauts essentiels de l'examen sont, en effet, qu'il n'aboutit généralement pas à des résultats objectifs et qu'il devient fatalement une fin en soi (car même les examens d'entrée sont toujours, par ailleurs, des examens finals: l'examen d'entrée à l'école secondaire devient un but pour l'éducation primaire, etc.). L'examen scolaire n'est pas objecttif, d'abord parce qu'il implique toujours une certaine part de hasard, mais ensuite et surtout parce qu'il porte sur la mémoire plus que sur les capacités constructives de l'élève (comme si ce dernier était condamné à ne plus jamais pouvoir se servir de ses livres une fois sorti de l'école!): aussi chacun peut-il vérifier combien le classement résultant des examens correspond peu au rendement ultérieur des individus dans la vie.

Student-Centered Learning: The First Steps Are the Hardest Ones Educator Melba Smithwick never had too much difficulty trying out new ideas. But when a new principal encouraged a small group of teachers to give students more say in their learning, Smithwick hesitated. Included: Smithwick shares her first, tentative steps. I have always been a risk-taker. That year, in the school where I taught math, five teachers were assigned to a take a yearlong course in student-centered learning, attending one session each month. During the first months of the course, I began to think more deeply about my instructional practices and the projects I assigned my students. I always thought my classroom was student-centered. After more reading, more informal discussions with my principal, and more training, however, I accidentally stumbled upon a true student-centered learning situation in my very own classroom. Sam loved to stir up the class and then sit back and watch us go at it. As the class wound to an end that day, several students asked me if Sam was correct.

Experiential Learning & Experiential Education: Philosophy, theory, practice & resources Several authors (e.g., Kraft, 1991; Richards, 1977) have pointed out that experiential learning dates back beyond recorded history and remains pervasive in current society, whether formalized by educational institutions or occurring informally in day-to-day life. In this sense, experiential learning is not an alternative approach, but the most traditional and fundamental method of human learning. Ironically, the current perception of experiential education as different is probably less due to new developments in experiential learning than it is to the normalization of didactic teaching as the mainstream educational methodology. Since the 1950's there has been a growing focus in writings and research specifically on experiential learning.

Related: