background preloader

Ethnography

Ethnography
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. The word can thus be said to have a "double meaning," which partly depends on whether it is used as a count noun or uncountably.[1] The resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group.[2][3][4] Origins[edit] Gerhard Friedrich Müller developed the concept of ethnography as a separate discipline whilst participating in the Second Kamchatka Expedition (1733–43) as a professor of history and geography. Data collection methods[edit] A picture of the Izmir Ethnography Museum (İzmir Etnografya Müzesi) from the courtyard. Differences across disciplines[edit] Related:  Social Sciences

Participant observation History and development[edit] Participant observation was used extensively by Frank Hamilton Cushing in his study of the Zuni Indians in the later part of the nineteenth century, followed by the studies of non-Western societies by people such as Bronisław Malinowski,[1] E.E. Evans-Pritchard,[2] and Margaret Mead[3] in the first half of the twentieth century. It emerged as the principal approach to ethnographic research by anthropologists and relied on the cultivation of personal relationships with local informants as a way of learning about a culture, involving both observing and participating in the social life of a group. The development of participant-observation as a research tool has therefore not been a haphazard process, but instead has practiced a great deal of self-criticism and review. Method and practice[edit] Types of participant observation[edit] Participant observation is not simply showing up at a site and writing things down. Participant Observation Type Chart.[8][14][15]

Sending e-mail Although Python makes sending e-mail relatively easy via the smtplib library, Django provides a couple of light wrappers over it. These wrappers are provided to make sending e-mail extra quick, to make it easy to test e-mail sending during development, and to provide support for platforms that can’t use SMTP. The code lives in the django.core.mail module. Quick example In two lines: from django.core.mail import send_mail send_mail('Subject here', 'Here is the message Mail is sent using the SMTP host and port specified in the EMAIL_HOST and EMAIL_PORT settings. Note The character set of e-mail sent with django.core.mail will be set to the value of your DEFAULT_CHARSET setting. send_mail() send_mail(subjectmessagefrom_emailrecipient_listfail_silently=Falseauth_user=Noneauth_password=Noneconnection=None) The simplest way to send e-mail is using django.core.mail.send_mail(). The subject, message, from_email and recipient_list parameters are required. send_mass_mail() mail_admins() mail_managers()

Cultural relativism Compare moral relativism, aesthetic relativism, social constructionism, and cognitive relativism. Cultural relativism is a principle that was established as axiomatic in anthropological research by Franz Boas in the first few decades of the 20th century and later popularized by his students. Boas first articulated the idea in 1887: "...civilization is not something absolute, but ... is relative, and ... our ideas and conceptions are true only so far as our civilization goes."[1] However, Boas did not coin the term. Epistemological origins[edit] "If anyone, no matter who, were given the opportunity of choosing from amongst all the nations in the world the set of beliefs which he thought best, he would inevitably—after careful considerations of their relative merits—choose that of his own country. The epistemological claims that led to the development of cultural relativism have their origins in the German Enlightenment. As a methodological and heuristic device[edit]

Model instance reference A few object methods have special purposes. __unicode__ Model.__unicode__() The __unicode__() method is called whenever you call unicode() on an object. Django uses unicode(obj) (or the related function, str(obj)) in a number of places. For example: from django.db import models class Person(models.Model): first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50) last_name = models.CharField(max_length=50) def __unicode__(self): return '%s %s' % (self.first_name, self.last_name) If you define a __unicode__() method on your model and not a __str__() method, Django will automatically provide you with a __str__() that calls __unicode__() and then converts the result correctly to a UTF-8 encoded string object. __str__ Model. The __str__() method is called whenever you call str() on an object. from django.db import models class Person(models.Model): first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50) last_name = models.CharField(max_length=50) def __str__(self): return '%s %s' % (self.first_name, self.last_name) <! Note

Agency (philosophy) Agency may either be classified as unconscious, involuntary behavior, or purposeful, goal directed activity (intentional action). An agent typically has some sort of immediate awareness of his physical activity and the goals that the activity is aimed at realizing. In ‘goal directed action’ an agent implements a kind of direct control or guidance over their own behavior.[1] Human agency is the capacity for human beings to make choices. In certain philosophical traditions (particularly those established by Hegel and Marx), human agency is a collective, historical dynamic, rather than a function arising out of individual behavior. Structure and agency forms an enduring core debate in sociology. Bandura, A. (2001).

A Detailed Django Tutorial: Blog Basics Part IV This is the last part of this 4 part series by Jeff Hui. If you wish, you can download the entire tutorial without having it split up. Today we’ll be learning the gist of Django, a pythonic web framework. If you’ve never dealt with (or even seen) python code before, I recommend skimming through python’s official tutorial. if myvariable == True: print “myvariable is True” print “Always printed” One other thing to note is that boolean variables are True and False (case-sensitive). Table of Contents Comments What’s a blog without comments? ‘django.contrib.comments’, Then we need to map it to a url. (r’^comments/’, include(‘django.contrib.comments.urls’)), Now we can start adding comments to our posts. Listing page Edit posts/post_list.html to match the following: Detail Page Edit post_detail.html and add the following after the include tag: The get_comments_list tag does what it says. Finally, we’ll add a comment form so users can post new comments. <hr/> <h3>Your comment</h3> Final Result Homepage

Topophilia Topophilia (From Greek topos "place" and -philia, "love of"[1]) is a strong sense of place, which often becomes mixed with the sense of cultural identity among certain peoples and a love of certain aspects of such a place. History of the term[edit] Alan Watts's autobiography, In My Own Way (1972), starts with the sentence: "Topophilia is a word invented by the British poet John Betjeman for a special love for peculiar places." In relation to local sports[edit] Sports geographer John Bale in his article "Enshrined in Blood" (The Sports Historian, 17, 2) has noted the opportunities sport stadia have for topophilia, citing five metaphors that make stadiums particularly topophilic: They are 'sacred spaces' for their followers, particularly if euphoric or tragic incidents have taken place within them, such as the Hillsborough disaster.They often have 'scenic' qualities, such as the view of the Gateway Arch at Busch Stadium in St. [edit] See also[edit] External links[edit] Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

Outputting PDFs with Django This document explains how to output PDF files dynamically using Django views. This is made possible by the excellent, open-source ReportLab Python PDF library. The advantage of generating PDF files dynamically is that you can create customized PDFs for different purposes – say, for different users or different pieces of content. For example, Django was used at kusports.com to generate customized, printer-friendly NCAA tournament brackets, as PDF files, for people participating in a March Madness contest. Install ReportLab Download and install the ReportLab library from Test your installation by importing it in the Python interactive interpreter: If that command doesn't raise any errors, the installation worked. Write your view The key to generating PDFs dynamically with Django is that the ReportLab API acts on file-like objects, and Django's HttpResponse objects are file-like objects. Here's a "Hello World" example: Complex PDFs Other formats

Sense of place Geographic place[edit] To understand sense of place, the geographic concept of space needs first to be defined. Geographic space is the space that encircle the planet or in orbit ones body, through which biological life moves. It is differentiated from "outer space" and "inner space" (inside the mind). One definition of place, proposed by Tuan, is that a place comes into existence when humans give meaning to a part of the larger, undifferentiated space. Placelessness[edit] Places that lack a "sense of place" are sometimes referred to as "placeless" or "inauthentic." Developing a sense of place[edit] Understanding how sense of place develops and changes is relevant to understanding how people interact with their environment in general and considering how this interaction may become more sustainable. See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Tuan, Yi-Fu (1980). Further reading[edit] Chigbu, U.E. (2013). External links[edit]

Custom template tags and filters Django’s template system comes with a wide variety of built-in tags and filters designed to address the presentation logic needs of your application. Nevertheless, you may find yourself needing functionality that is not covered by the core set of template primitives. You can extend the template engine by defining custom tags and filters using Python, and then make them available to your templates using the {% load %} tag. Code layout Custom template tags and filters must live inside a Django app. If they relate to an existing app it makes sense to bundle them there; otherwise, you should create a new app to hold them. The app should contain a templatetags directory, at the same level as models.py, views.py, etc. Your custom tags and filters will live in a module inside the templatetags directory. For example, if your custom tags/filters are in a file called poll_extras.py, your app layout might look like this: polls/ models.py templatetags/ __init__.py poll_extras.py views.py

Ethnography: a qualitative research methodology, which places great emphasis on trying to reveal and understand the way respondents look at the world. It is often associated with the use of participant observation.

Found in: 2012 - (Oliver) Succeeding With Your Literature Review by raviii Apr 10

it's a way of getting involved with the people who are using the knowledge by raviii Mar 1

revealing how people describe and structure their world. it uses observation, and in depth interviews by raviii Mar 1

emphasising the everyday experience of individuals by raviii Mar 1

Ethnographic techniques were initially developed in sociology by raviii Mar 1

Related: