Al-Ghazali Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (c. 1058–1111); (ابو حامد محمد ابن محمد الغزالي), known as Al-Ghazali or Algazel to the Western medieval world, was a Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic of Persian descent. Al-Ghazali has sometimes been referred to by historians as the single most influential Muslim after the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam he is considered to be a Mujaddid or renewer of the faith, who, according to tradition, appears once every century to restore the faith of the community. His works were so highly acclaimed by his contemporaries that al-Ghazali was awarded the honorific title "Proof of Islam" (Hujjat al-Islam). Others[who?] Life Haruniyah (هارونیه) structure in Tus, Iran, named after Harun al-Rashid, the mausoleum of Al-Ghazali is thought to be situated at the entrance of this monument School affiliations Works Al-Ghazali wrote more than 70 books on the sciences, Islamic philosophy and Sufism. Theology
Participant observation History and development Participant observation was used extensively by Frank Hamilton Cushing in his study of the Zuni Indians in the later part of the nineteenth century, followed by the studies of non-Western societies by people such as Bronisław Malinowski, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, and Margaret Mead in the first half of the twentieth century. It emerged as the principal approach to ethnographic research by anthropologists and relied on the cultivation of personal relationships with local informants as a way of learning about a culture, involving both observing and participating in the social life of a group. The development of participant-observation as a research tool has therefore not been a haphazard process, but instead has practiced a great deal of self-criticism and review. Method and practice Types of participant observation Participant observation is not simply showing up at a site and writing things down. Participant Observation Type Chart.
Sending e-mail Although Python makes sending e-mail relatively easy via the smtplib library, Django provides a couple of light wrappers over it. These wrappers are provided to make sending e-mail extra quick, to make it easy to test e-mail sending during development, and to provide support for platforms that can’t use SMTP. The code lives in the django.core.mail module. Quick example In two lines: from django.core.mail import send_mail send_mail('Subject here', 'Here is the message Mail is sent using the SMTP host and port specified in the EMAIL_HOST and EMAIL_PORT settings. Note The character set of e-mail sent with django.core.mail will be set to the value of your DEFAULT_CHARSET setting. send_mail() send_mail(subjectmessagefrom_emailrecipient_listfail_silently=Falseauth_user=Noneauth_password=Noneconnection=None) The simplest way to send e-mail is using django.core.mail.send_mail(). The subject, message, from_email and recipient_list parameters are required. send_mass_mail() mail_admins() mail_managers()
Class 03 | Joseph Molinaro Learning Objectives: To introduce ethnographic research style in design field.To understand the steps in conducting ethnographic research.To learn about the driving and restraining forces for using ethnography in design practice. Discussion Points: What is research? The word research literally means ‘to investigate thoroughly’. What is ethnography? Ethnography is the study of cultures. A brief history of ethnography Ethnography is a social science research method. Definition of Ethnography: Contemporary Perspectives Deconstructing the Definition of Ethnography Qualitative description implies a lack of statistical evidence, but a richer experiential understanding of gathered data. Unique Characteristics of Ethnography How To Do Ethnographic Research? This diagram shows the steps in conducting ethnographic research. what this diagram does not capture is how messy this process really is and how fieldwork , in the sense of collecting data, is one big learning process. The Ethnographic Research Cycle
Hellenistic philosophy Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism. Hellenistic schools of thought Pythagoreanism Pythagoreanism is the name given to the system of philosophy and science developed by Pythagoras, which influenced nearly all the systems of Hellenistic philosophy that followed. Pythagoras of Croton (570-495 BCE)Hippasus (5th century BCE) Sophism In Ancient Greece, the sophists were a category of teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric for the purpose of teaching aretê — excellence, or virtue — predominantly to young statesmen and nobility. Cynicism Antisthenes (445-365 BCE)Diogenes of Sinope (412-323 BCE)Crates of Thebes (365-285 BCE)Menippus (c. 275 BCE)Demetrius (10-80 CE) Cyrenaicism The Cyrenaics were an ultra-hedonist school of philosophy founded in the 4th century BC, by Aristippus of Cyrene. Platonism
Cultural relativism Compare moral relativism, aesthetic relativism, social constructionism, and cognitive relativism. Cultural relativism is a principle that was established as axiomatic in anthropological research by Franz Boas in the first few decades of the 20th century and later popularized by his students. Boas first articulated the idea in 1887: "...civilization is not something absolute, but ... is relative, and ... our ideas and conceptions are true only so far as our civilization goes." However, Boas did not coin the term. Epistemological origins "If anyone, no matter who, were given the opportunity of choosing from amongst all the nations in the world the set of beliefs which he thought best, he would inevitably—after careful considerations of their relative merits—choose that of his own country. The epistemological claims that led to the development of cultural relativism have their origins in the German Enlightenment. As a methodological and heuristic device
Model instance reference A few object methods have special purposes. __unicode__ Model.__unicode__() The __unicode__() method is called whenever you call unicode() on an object. Django uses unicode(obj) (or the related function, str(obj)) in a number of places. For example: from django.db import models class Person(models.Model): first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50) last_name = models.CharField(max_length=50) def __unicode__(self): return '%s %s' % (self.first_name, self.last_name) If you define a __unicode__() method on your model and not a __str__() method, Django will automatically provide you with a __str__() that calls __unicode__() and then converts the result correctly to a UTF-8 encoded string object. __str__ Model. The __str__() method is called whenever you call str() on an object. from django.db import models class Person(models.Model): first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50) last_name = models.CharField(max_length=50) def __str__(self): return '%s %s' % (self.first_name, self.last_name) <! Note
Czarownice czy znachorki? ''Szeptuchy od czasów pogańskich pełnią rolę lekarzy ludu'' Kim jest szeptucha? - Zgodnie z definicją szeptucha jest tradycyjnym podlaskim uzdrowicielem, który odwołuje się do tradycji tutejszej medycyny ludowej. Ile szeptuch zgodnie z pani szacunkami mamy jeszcze w Polsce? - Nigdy nie stawiałam sobie za cel policzenia wszystkich, dlatego mogę tylko szacować. Poza tym ich liczba regularnie spada, są to w większości osoby bardzo wiekowe - wśród badanych przeze mnie średnia wieku wyniosła 70 lat, a więc co chwilę jedna z szeptuch umiera. Kadr z filmu 'Wyszeptane Uzdrowienie' (fot. Na ile ich działalność jest przejawem duchowości, a na ile konieczności wynikającej z ograniczonego dostępu do lekarzy w tradycyjnych społecznościach wiejskich? - Oba te wymiary - duchowość czy religijność oraz aspekt medyczny - są bardzo ważne. Czyli szeptuchy de facto nie zajmowały się ziołolecznictwem? (fot. Jak w takim razie wygląda praktyka szeptuch? Jakie syndromy czy problemy leczą szeptuchy? (fot. - Tak, to pomaga nam radzić sobie z problemem, bo go materializuje.
Al-Juwayni Imam al-Haramayn Dhia' ul-Din Abd al-Malik ibn Yusuf al-Juwayni al-Shafi'i (Persian: امام الحرمین ضیاءالدین عبدالملک ابن یوسف جوینی شافعی, 1028—1085 CE; 419—478 AH) was a Persian Sunni Shafi'i faqih and mutakallim. His name is commonly abbreviated as Al-Juwayni; he is also commonly referred to as Imam al Haramayn, meaning "leading master of the two holy cities", that is, Mecca and Medina. Biography Born in 1028CE in a village on the outskirts of Naysabur called Bushtaniqan in Iran, Al-Juwayni was a prominent Muslim scholar known for his gifted intellect in Islamic legal matters. Al-Juwayni was born into a family of legal study. Al-Juwayni grew up in Naysabur, an intellectually thriving area drawing scholars to it. The Seljuks, at the time, were moving quickly in their conquest of eastern Iran and Tughril Beg became the first sultan. Al-Juwayni traveled to Mecca and Medina in search of an interim home. Doctrine Works In fiqh, usûl, kalām See also
Agency (philosophy) Agency may either be classified as unconscious, involuntary behavior, or purposeful, goal directed activity (intentional action). An agent typically has some sort of immediate awareness of his physical activity and the goals that the activity is aimed at realizing. In ‘goal directed action’ an agent implements a kind of direct control or guidance over their own behavior. Human agency is the capacity for human beings to make choices. In certain philosophical traditions (particularly those established by Hegel and Marx), human agency is a collective, historical dynamic, rather than a function arising out of individual behavior. Structure and agency forms an enduring core debate in sociology. Bandura, A. (2001).