Modern - Wikipedia Modern generally denotes something that is "up-to-date", "new", or contemporary. It may refer to: in history Modern history in philosophy and sociology in art as a proper name toponymy Modra, a Slovak city, referred to in the German language as "Modern" Greenberg: Modernism Modernist Painting Forum Lectures (Washington, D. C.: Voice of America), 1960Arts Yearbook 4, 1961 (unrevised)Art and Literature, Spring 1965 (slightly revised)The New Art: A Critical Anthology, ed. Gregory Battcock, 1966Peinture-cahiers théoriques, no. 8-9, I974 (titled "La peinture moderniste")Esthetics Contemporary, ed. Richard Kostelanetz, 1978Modern Art and Modernism: A Critical Anthology. ed. Greenberg's first essay on modernism, clarifying many of the ideas implicit in "Avant-Garde and Kitsch", his groundbreaking essay written two decades earlier. ... the use of characteristic methods of a discipline to criticize the discipline itself, not in order to subvert it but in order to entrench it more firmly in its area of competence. The essay is notable for its illuminating (and largely undeveloped) observations about the nature and history of pictures, let alone Greenberg's mid-life perception of the character and importance of the avant-garde. Postscript (1978)
Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason) is an era from the 1650s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority. It was promoted by philosophes and local thinkers in urban coffeehouses, salons and masonic lodges. It challenged the authority of institutions that were deeply rooted in society, such as the Catholic Church; there was much talk of ways to reform society with toleration, science and skepticism. New ideas and beliefs spread around the continent and were fostered by an increase in literacy due to a departure from solely religious texts. Use of the term The term "Enlightenment" emerged in English in the later part of the 19th century, with particular reference to French philosophy, as the equivalent of the French term 'Lumières' (used first by Dubos in 1733 and already well established by 1751). Time span Goals
The easy guide to design movements: Modernism | Graphic design With the advances of technology Modernism began to break through at the end of the 19th century into the beginning to the 20th century. Western society began to develop new ways to shape human culture and improve the constructed environment. Modernism covered many creative disciplines from design and art to influencing architecture, music and literature. Influential designers of this period range from Walter Gropius from the Bauhaus to the modern architect Le Corbusier, both men were fascinated with all disciplines of design and it reflected greatly in their work. 'Function should always dictate form' Modernism particularly inspired fine art, it saw a break in the world of the 'ism' - these art styles include Impressionism, Cubism, Fauvism, Futurism, Brutalism and Surrealism. Graphic Design and Typefaces Modernism especially changed the thinking process for communications, graphic design and typography, the style of design shifted drastically from the prior 19th century approach.
Postmodern art Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general, movements such as Intermedia, Installation art, Conceptual Art and Multimedia, particularly involving video are described as postmodern. There are several characteristics which lend art to being postmodern; these include bricolage, the use of words prominently as the central artistic element, collage, simplification, appropriation, performance art, the recycling of past styles and themes in a modern-day context, as well as the break-up of the barrier between fine and high arts and low art and popular culture. Use of the term The predominant term for art produced since the 1950s is "contemporary art". As well as describing certain tendencies of contemporary art, postmodern has also been used to denote a phase of modern art. As with all uses of the term postmodern there are critics of its application. Dada
Vorticism - Wikipedia Origins The name Vorticism was given to the movement by Ezra Pound in 1913, although Lewis, usually seen as the central figure in the movement, had been producing paintings in the same style for a year or so previously. Participants The eleven signatories of the Vorticist manifesto were: BLAST The Vorticists published two issues of the literary magazine BLAST, in June 1914 and July 1915 which Lewis edited. It contained work by Ezra Pound and T. Demise and legacy Paintings and sculpture shown at the Rebel Art Centre in 1914, before the formation of the Vorticist Group was experimental work by Lewis, Wadsworth, Shakespear and others, using angular simplification and abstraction. After this, the movement broke up, largely due to the onset of World War I and public apathy towards the work. See also Notes References Antcliffe, Mark, and Green, Vivien (eds.). External links
Modernism Origin of the word Etymologically, modernism means an exaggerated love of what is modern, an infatuation for modern ideas , "the abuse of what is modern", as the Abbé Gaudaud explains (La Foi catholique, I, 1908, p. 248). The modern ideas of which we speak are not as old as the period called "modern times". Though Protestantism has generated them little by little, it did not understand from the beginning that such would be its sequel. During the early years of the present century, especially about 1905 and 1906, the tendency to innovation which troubled the Italian dioceses , and especially the ranks of the young clergy , was taxed with modernism. Theory of theological Modernism The essential error of Modernism A full definition of modernism would be rather difficult. Such are the fundamental tendencies. It will be advisable for us to quote a full critique of such supernatural knowledge as an example of the mode of procedure. Catholic and Modernist notions of dogma compared
Gentrification Gentrification is a shift in an urban community toward wealthier residents and/or businesses and increasing property values. Gentrification is typically the result of investment in a community by local government, community activists, or business groups, and can often spur economic development, attract business, and lower crime rates. In addition to these potential benefits, gentrification can lead to population migration, which involves poorer residents being displaced by wealthier newcomers. In a community undergoing gentrification, the average income increases and average family size decreases. Political action is often the community's response, either to promote the gentrification or oppose economic eviction. Local governments may favor gentrification because of the increased tax base associated with the new high-income residents, as well as other perceived benefits of moving poor people and rehabilitating deteriorated areas. Origin and etymology Causes
Robert Hughes on the modernist movement | Art and design Modernism is a weasel of a word, whose meanings slip and slide. They always have. Not that one should use "modernism" and "always" in the same sentence. Nobody talked or thought about modernism in the middle ages - the idea of a battle between "new" and "established" cultural forms was not an issue then. Modernism is something old that we look back on, not without nostalgia. That certainly wasn't the modernité Charles Baudelaire was thinking of in 1863 when, in The Painter of Modern Life, he described "modernity" as an exaltation of "the ephemeral, the fugitive, the contingent, the half of art whose other half is the eternal and the immutable". Once, movements and works that no longer seem to match up with modernism as we understand it used to call themselves modernist. It's no accident that the exhibition's delimiting years should be the starting dates of two catastrophic world wars, 1914 and 1939. Or else, we say that Europe, dire as its condition is, can actually be improved.
Abstract expressionism Style Technically, an important predecessor is surrealism, with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic or subconscious creation. Jackson Pollock's dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson, Max Ernst and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist Mark Tobey, especially his "white writing" canvases, which, though generally not large in scale, anticipate the "all-over" look of Pollock's drip paintings. Mark Tobey, Canticle, 1954. Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early 20th century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Why this style gained mainstream acceptance in the 1950s is a matter of debate. Although the abstract expressionist school spread quickly throughout the United States, the major centers of this style were New York City and the San Francisco Bay area of California.
World War I - Wikipedia World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, or the Great War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. Over 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war (including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by trench warfare, a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held the advantage. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. Prelude
A Brief Guide to Modernism "That's not it at all, that's not what I meant at all"—from "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," by T. S. The English novelist Virginia Woolf declared that human nature underwent a fundamental change "on or about December 1910." "On or about 1910," just as the automobile and airplane were beginning to accelerate the pace of human life, and Einstein's ideas were transforming our perception of the universe, there was an explosion of innovation and creative energy that shook every field of artistic endeavor. The excitement, however, came to a terrible climax in 1914 with the start of the First World War, which wiped out a generation of young men in Europe, catapulted Russia into a catastrophic revolution, and sowed the seeds for even worse conflagrations in the decades to follow. Ezra Pound, the most aggressively modern of these poets, made "Make it new!" William Carlos Williams wrote in "plain American which cats and dogs can read," to use a phrase of Marianne Moore.