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The central tendency of anarchism as a social movement has been represented by anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism, with individualist anarchism being primarily a literary phenomenon[25] which nevertheless did have an impact on the bigger currents[26] and individualists have also participated in large anarchist organisations.[27][28] Many anarchists oppose all forms of aggression, supporting self-defense or non-violence (anarcho-pacifism),[29][30] while others have supported the use of some coercive measures, including violent revolution and propaganda of the deed, on the path to an anarchist society.[31] Etymology and terminology[edit] The term anarchism is a compound word composed from the word anarchy and the suffix -ism,[32] themselves derived respectively from the Greek ἀναρχία, i.e. anarchy[33][34][35] (from ἄναρχος, anarchos, meaning "one without rulers";[36] from the privative prefix ἀν- (an-, i.e. "without") + ἀρχός, archos, i.e. History[edit] Origins[edit]

Individualist anarchism Overview[edit] Individualist anarchism of different kinds have a few things in common. These are: 1. The concentration on the individual and his/her will in preference to any construction such as morality, ideology, social custom, religion, metaphysics, ideas or the will of others.[9][10] 2. 3. For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster, American individualist anarchism "stresses the isolation of the individual — his right to his own tools, his mind, his body, and to the products of his labor. In European individualist anarchism a different social context helped the rise of European individualist illegalism and as such "The illegalists were proletarians who had nothing to sell but their labour power, and nothing to discard but their dignity; if they disdained waged-work, it was because of its compulsive nature. Another important tendency within individualist anarchist currents emphasizes individual subjective exploration and defiance of social conventions.

Utopia, Ohio Utopia is an unincorporated community in far southern Franklin Township, Clermont County, Ohio, United States, along the banks of the Ohio River. Utopia has been referred to as a "ghost town" although there are still people who live there. Geography[edit] Utopia is located on the northern bank of the Ohio River in the southeast corner of Clermont County, in southwest Ohio.Coordinates: 38°46′34″N 84°03′26″W / 38.77611°N 84.05722°W / 38.77611; -84.05722 It lies along U.S. First settlement[edit] Utopia was founded in 1844 by the followers of Charles Fourier, after the failure of an earlier Fourierist phalanstère called the Clermont Phalanx. Within three years, the community broke up. First settlers[edit] Second settlers[edit] Flood of 1847[edit] On the night of December 13, the Ohio River had flooded its banks dramatically and was getting dangerously close to the town hall. Second settlement[edit] See also[edit] Anarchism in the United States References[edit] See also[edit] External links[edit]

Christian anarchism More than any other Bible source, the Sermon on the Mount is used as the basis for Christian anarchism.[4] Most Christian anarchists are pacifists and reject the use of violence, such as war.[2] Leo Tolstoy's The Kingdom of God Is Within You is often regarded as a key text for modern Christian anarchism.[2][5] Origins[edit] Old Testament[edit] Jacques Ellul recounts that at the end of the Book of Judges (Judges 21:25) there was no king in Israel and "everyone did as they saw fit".[6][7][8] Later in the first Book of Samuel (1 Samuel 8) the people of Israel wanted a king to be like other nations.[7][9] God declared that the people had rejected him as their king. New Testament[edit] More than any other Bible source, the Sermon on the Mount is used as the basis for Christian anarchism.[4] Alexandre Christoyannopoulos explains that the Sermon perfectly illustrates Jesus' central teaching of love and forgiveness. The gospels tell of Jesus' temptation in the desert. Early Church[edit] Adin Ballou

Communist state Map of countries that declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition - that is to say, "Communist states" - between 1979 and 1983. This period marked the greatest territorial extent of Communist states. In a Communist state, the Communist party is the nucleus of socialist society. Other parties may function alongside the Communist party occasionally, but parties advocating the restoration of capitalism are typically prohibited. During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally socialist state was in Russia in 1917. Types of socialist states While historically almost all claim lineage to Marxist thought, there are many varieties of socialist states, with indigenous adaptions. These Socialist states often do not claim to have achieved socialism or communism in their countries; rather, they claim to be building and working toward the establishment of socialism in their countries. State institutions State social institutions Political power

Cincinnati Time Store Warren embraced the labor theory of value, which says that the value of a commodity is the amount of labor that goes into producing or acquiring it. From this he concluded that it was therefore unethical to charge more labor for a product than the labor required to produce it. Warren summed up this policy in the phrase "Cost the limit of price," with "cost" referring the amount of labor one exerted in producing a good. Believing the labor is the foundational cost of things, he held that equal amounts of labor should, naturally, receive equal material compensation. He set out to examine if his theories could be put to practice by establishing his "labor for labor store." A 19th-century example of barter: A sample labor for labor note for the Cincinnati Time Store. In the store, customers could purchase goods with "labor notes" which represented an agreement to perform labor. See also[edit] References[edit] Men Against the State by James J. External links[edit]

Platformism Platformism is a tendency (or organized school of thought) within the anarchist movement. It stresses the need for tightly organized anarchist organizations, that are able to influence working class and peasant movements. "Platformist" groups reject the model of Leninist vanguardism. They aim, instead, to "make anarchist ideas the leading ideas within the class struggle".[1] The four main principles by which an anarchist organisation should operate, according to Platformists, are ideological unity, tactical unity, collective responsibility, and federalism. In general, platformist groups aim to win the widest possible influence for anarchist ideas and methods in the working class and peasantry—like especifismo groups, platformists orientate towards "ordinary" people, rather than to the extreme left milieu. The document drew both praise and criticism from anarchists worldwide and sparked a major debate within the anarchist movement.[4] Organisational ideas[edit] Publication history[edit]

Free love Free love is a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social and financial bondage. The Free Love movement's initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else.[1] Many people believe marriage is an important aspect of life to "fulfil earthly human happiness." According to today's stereotype, earlier middle-class Americans wanted the home to be a place of stability in an uncertain world. While the phrase free love is often associated with promiscuity in the popular imagination, especially in reference to the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s, historically the free-love movement has not advocated multiple sexual partners or short-term sexual relationships. The women's movement[edit] The history of free love is entwined with the history of feminism. Sex, to proponents of free love, was not only about reproduction.

Confederación Nacional del Trabajo The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT; "National Confederation of Labour") is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions affiliated with the International Workers Association (IWA; Spanish: AIT – Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores). When working with the latter group it is also known as CNT-AIT. Historically, the CNT has also been affiliated with the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (Iberian Anarchist Federation – FAI). Founded in 1910 in Barcelona [1] from groups brought together by the trade union Solidaridad Obrera, it significantly expanded the role of anarchism in Spain, which can be traced to the creation of the Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española, the successor organization to the Spanish chapter of the IWA. Organization and function[edit] Membership[edit] The CNT says of its membership, "We make no distinction at the time of admission, we require only that you are a worker, student or unemployed. Objectives[edit] Structure[edit]

Federalism Federations Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. The term "federalism" is also used to describe a system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units (such as states or provinces). Federalism is a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments, creating what is often called a federation. European vs. American Federalism[edit] In Europe, "Federalist" is sometimes used to describe those who favor a common federal government, with distributed power at regional, national and supranational levels. In contrast, Europe has a greater history of unitary states than North America, thus European "federalism" argues for a weaker central government, relative to a unitary state. Australia[edit] Brazil[edit]

Freethought For the Ukrainian language newspaper published in Australia, see The Free Thought. Freethought or free thought is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, or other dogmas.[1][2][3] The cognitive application of freethought is known as "freethinking", and practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers".[1][4] Freethought holds that individuals should not accept ideas proposed as truth without recourse to knowledge and reason. Thus, freethinkers strive to build their opinions on the basis of facts, scientific inquiry, and logical principles, independent of any logical fallacies or the intellectually limiting effects of authority, confirmation bias, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular culture, prejudice, sectarianism, tradition, urban legend, and all other dogmas. Symbol[edit] The pansy, symbol of freethought History[edit] Pre-modern movement[edit]

Workers' self-management Self-management or workers' self-management (also referred to as labor management, autogestión, workers' control, industrial democracy and producer cooperatives) is a form of management that involves management of an organization by its workers. Self-management is a characteristic of many models of socialism, with proposals for self-management having appeared many times throughout the history of the socialist movement, advocated variously by market socialists, communists and anarchists.[1] There are many variations of self-management. Self-management of an organization may coincide with employee ownership of that organization, but self-management can also exist in the context of organizations under public ownership, and to a limited extent within private companies in the form of co-determination and worker representation on the board of directors. Economic theory[edit] Classical economics[edit] Management science[edit] Political movements[edit] Europe[edit] North America[edit] See also[edit]

Insurrectionary anarchism Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory, practice, and tendency within the anarchist movement which emphasizes insurrection within anarchist practice.[1][2] It is critical of formal organizations such as labor unions and federations that are based on a political programme and periodic congresses.[1] Instead, insurrectionary anarchists advocate informal organization and small affinity group based organization.[1][2] Insurrectionary anarchists put value in attack, permanent class conflict, and a refusal to negotiate or compromise with class enemies.[1][2] Contemporary insurrectionary anarchism inherits the views and tactics of anti-organizational anarcho-communism[3][4] and illegalism.[2][5] Origins and evolution[edit] 19th century[edit] Platformist anarchist Joe Black says that "There is a long tradition within anarchism of constructing ideologies out of a tactic. Illegalism and propaganda by the deed[edit] Contemporary approaches[edit] Theory[edit] 1. 2. 3. 4.

Anarchism without adjectives Origins[edit] History[edit] The theoretical perspective known as "anarquismo sin adjetivos" was one of the by-products of an intense debate within the movement of anarchism itself. The roots of the argument can be found in the development of anarcho-communism after Bakunin's death in 1876. While not entirely dissimilar to collectivist anarchism (as can be seen from James Guillaume's famous work "On Building the New Social Order" within Bakunin on Anarchism, the collectivists did see their economic system evolving into free communism), Communist Anarchists developed, deepened and enriched Bakunin's work just as Bakunin had developed, deepened and enriched Proudhon's. Communist Anarchism was associated with such anarchists as Élisée Reclus, Carlo Cafiero, Errico Malatesta and (most famously) Peter Kropotkin. Anarcho-communist ideas replaced Collectivist Anarchism as the main anarchist tendency in Europe, except in Spain. United States[edit] Synthetist federations[edit] Today[edit]