Individualist anarchism Overview Individualist anarchism of different kinds have a few things in common. These are: 1. The concentration on the individual and his/her will in preference to any construction such as morality, ideology, social custom, religion, metaphysics, ideas or the will of others. 2. 3. For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster, American individualist anarchism "stresses the isolation of the individual — his right to his own tools, his mind, his body, and to the products of his labor. In European individualist anarchism a different social context helped the rise of European individualist illegalism and as such "The illegalists were proletarians who had nothing to sell but their labour power, and nothing to discard but their dignity; if they disdained waged-work, it was because of its compulsive nature. Another important tendency within individualist anarchist currents emphasizes individual subjective exploration and defiance of social conventions.
Utopia, Ohio Utopia is an unincorporated community in far southern Franklin Township, Clermont County, Ohio, United States, along the banks of the Ohio River. Utopia has been referred to as a "ghost town" although there are still people who live there. Geography Utopia is located on the northern bank of the Ohio River in the southeast corner of Clermont County, in southwest Ohio.Coordinates: 38°46′34″N 84°03′26″W / 38.77611°N 84.05722°W / 38.77611; -84.05722 It lies along U.S. First settlement Utopia was founded in 1844 by the followers of Charles Fourier, after the failure of an earlier Fourierist phalanstère called the Clermont Phalanx. Within three years, the community broke up. First settlers Second settlers Flood of 1847 On the night of December 13, the Ohio River had flooded its banks dramatically and was getting dangerously close to the town hall. Second settlement See also Anarchism in the United States References See also External links
William Godwin Early life and education He then acted as a minister at Ware, Stowmarket and Beaconsfield. At Stowmarket the teachings of the French philosophers were brought before him by a friend, Joseph Fawcett, who held strong republican opinions. Godwin came to London in 1782, still nominally as a minister, to regenerate society with his pen — a real enthusiast, who shrank theoretically from no conclusions from the premises which he laid down. Early writing His first published work was an anonymous Life of Lord Chatham (1783). Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Caleb Williams Godwin augmented the influence of Political Justice with the publication of a novel that proved equally popular, Things as They Are; or, The Adventures of Caleb Williams. Political writing Godwin, consistent in his theory and stubborn in his practice, practically lived in secret for 30 years because of his reputation. Interpretation of political justice Debate with Malthus
Anarchist communism Some forms of anarchist communism such as insurrectionary anarchism are strongly influenced by egoism and radical individualism, believing anarcho-communism is the best social system for the realization of individual freedom. Some anarcho-communists view anarcho-communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society. Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French Revolution but was first formulated as such in the Italian section of the First International. The theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin took importance later as it expanded and developed pro-organizationalist and insurrectionary anti-organizationalist sections. History Early developments Anarchist communist currents appeared during the English Civil War and the French Revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries, respectively. Joseph Déjacque and the Revolutions of 1848 Peter Kropotkin
Direct democracy Direct democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on, etc.) policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives. Depending on the particular system in use, it might entail passing executive decisions, the use of sortition, making laws, directly electing or dismissing officials and conducting trials. Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Most countries that are representative democracies allow for three forms of political action that provide limited direct democracy: referendum (plebiscite), initiative, and recall. History Modern-era citizen lawmaking began in the towns of Switzerland in the 13th century. Examples Ancient Athens Switzerland United States
Communist state Map of countries that declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition - that is to say, "Communist states" - between 1979 and 1983. This period marked the greatest territorial extent of Communist states. In a Communist state, the Communist party is the nucleus of socialist society. Other parties may function alongside the Communist party occasionally, but parties advocating the restoration of capitalism are typically prohibited. During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally socialist state was in Russia in 1917. Types of socialist states While historically almost all claim lineage to Marxist thought, there are many varieties of socialist states, with indigenous adaptions. These Socialist states often do not claim to have achieved socialism or communism in their countries; rather, they claim to be building and working toward the establishment of socialism in their countries. State institutions State social institutions Political power
Cincinnati Time Store Warren embraced the labor theory of value, which says that the value of a commodity is the amount of labor that goes into producing or acquiring it. From this he concluded that it was therefore unethical to charge more labor for a product than the labor required to produce it. Warren summed up this policy in the phrase "Cost the limit of price," with "cost" referring the amount of labor one exerted in producing a good. Believing the labor is the foundational cost of things, he held that equal amounts of labor should, naturally, receive equal material compensation. He set out to examine if his theories could be put to practice by establishing his "labor for labor store." A 19th-century example of barter: A sample labor for labor note for the Cincinnati Time Store. In the store, customers could purchase goods with "labor notes" which represented an agreement to perform labor. See also References Men Against the State by James J. External links
Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia (10 January 1859 – 13 October 1909) (known as Francisco Ferrer y Guardia in Spanish and often simply as Francisco Ferrer) was a Spanish anarchist. Life He was born in Alella (a small town near Barcelona) to Roman Catholic parents. He was sent to work on a Barcelona firm at the age of 15. The owner of the firm was an anti-cleric and is said to have had a great influence on Ferrer. A follower of Spanish republican leader Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla, Ferrer was exiled to Paris with his wife and children in 1885. In 1901 he returned to Spain and opened the Escuela Moderna (The Modern School) to teach middle-class children (then) radical social values. Early in the summer of 1908, after his release from jail, he wrote the story of the Modern School. References External links
Socialism Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms. Etymology The origin of the term "socialism" may be traced back and attributed to a number of originators, in addition to significant historical shifts in the usage and scope of the word. For Andrew Vincent, "[t]he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and then medieval law was societas. History Early socialism Paris Commune First International Second International Early 20th century
Free love Free love is a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social and financial bondage. The Free Love movement's initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else. Many people believe marriage is an important aspect of life to "fulfil earthly human happiness." According to today's stereotype, earlier middle-class Americans wanted the home to be a place of stability in an uncertain world. While the phrase free love is often associated with promiscuity in the popular imagination, especially in reference to the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s, historically the free-love movement has not advocated multiple sexual partners or short-term sexual relationships. The women's movement The history of free love is entwined with the history of feminism. Sex, to proponents of free love, was not only about reproduction.
Freethought For the Ukrainian language newspaper published in Australia, see The Free Thought. Freethought or free thought is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, or other dogmas. The cognitive application of freethought is known as "freethinking", and practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers". Freethought holds that individuals should not accept ideas proposed as truth without recourse to knowledge and reason. Thus, freethinkers strive to build their opinions on the basis of facts, scientific inquiry, and logical principles, independent of any logical fallacies or the intellectually limiting effects of authority, confirmation bias, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular culture, prejudice, sectarianism, tradition, urban legend, and all other dogmas. Symbol The pansy, symbol of freethought History Pre-modern movement
Confederación Nacional del Trabajo The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT; "National Confederation of Labour") is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions affiliated with the International Workers Association (IWA; Spanish: AIT – Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores). When working with the latter group it is also known as CNT-AIT. Historically, the CNT has also been affiliated with the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (Iberian Anarchist Federation – FAI). Founded in 1910 in Barcelona  from groups brought together by the trade union Solidaridad Obrera, it significantly expanded the role of anarchism in Spain, which can be traced to the creation of the Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española, the successor organization to the Spanish chapter of the IWA. Organization and function Membership The CNT says of its membership, "We make no distinction at the time of admission, we require only that you are a worker, student or unemployed. Objectives Structure
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Proudhon, who was born in Besançon, was a printer who taught himself Latin in order to better print books in the language. His best-known assertion is that Property is Theft!, contained in his first major work, What is Property? Or, an Inquiry into the Principle of Right and Government (Qu'est-ce que la propriété? Recherche sur le principe du droit et du gouvernement), published in 1840. The book's publication attracted the attention of the French authorities. Proudhon favored workers' associations or co-operatives, as well as individual worker/peasant possession, over private ownership or the nationalization of land and workplaces. Biography Early life and education Proudhon was born in Besançon, France on February 15, 1809, at 37 Rue du Petit Battant in the suburb of Battant. His father, Claude-François Proudhon who worked as a brewer and a cooper, was originally from the village of Chasnans, near the border with Switzerland. Entrance into the printing trade Early writings Death