Disadvantages of Proportional Representation Proportional representation requires the use of multiple-member voting districts (also called super-districts). Proportional representation is not possible using single-member districts alone. Three types of voting systems are usually associated with PR: Party-list PR systems where political parties define candidate lists and voters vote for a list; that is, they vote for a party rather than for specific candidates (a "closed list"). A majority of countries use some form of PR in national lower house elections, party-list PR being the most widely used system (35%) followed by mixed systems at 15%, including both MMP and Mixed Member Majoritarian systems (MMM)). STV, despite long being admired by political scientists, is used in only two national lower houses: Ireland (since 1921) and Malta (since 1921). Political interests generally oppose its use because it so effectively transfers power from politicians to the electorate. Fairness Coalitions
Major Social Transformation Is a Lot Closer Than You May Realize -- How Do We Finish the Job? December 30, 2013 | Like this article? Join our email list: Stay up to date with the latest headlines via email. The current social movement that exploded onto the national scene with the 2011 Occupy Movement is following the path of successful movements so far. This week, our article for the end of 2013 focuses on where we are, i.e. at what stage of the progression of social movements do we find ourselves; and broadly outlines the next steps. Successful people-powered movements follow a similar arc of development. Moyer’s work is heartening for social justice activists because it shows how movements grow, recede and change their functions at different stages. In a recent conversation, Ken Butigan, a peace and justice activist who worked with Moyer, told us that Moyer wrote the first draft of the Eight Stages of Successful Social Movements when he was jailed with more than 1,400 people protesting the Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant in 1977. This Historic Moment
Meritocracy Definitions Early definitions Supporters of meritocracies do not necessarily agree on the nature of "merit", however, they do tend to agree that "merit" itself should be a primary consideration during evaluation. In a more general sense, meritocracy can refer to any form of government based on achievement. Like "utilitarian" and "pragmatic", the word "meritocratic" has also developed a broader definition, and may be used to refer to any government run by "a ruling or influential class of educated or able people."  This is in contrast to the term originally coined by Michael Young in 1958, who critically defined it as a system where "merit is equated with intelligence-plus-effort, its possessors are identified at an early age and selected for appropriate intensive education, and there is an obsession with quantification, test-scoring, and qualifications."  More recent definitions The most common form of meritocratic screening found today is the college degree.
Films For Action: Watch the Best Social Change Documentaries Ever Made Putting empathy into economics | New Economics Foundation June 24, 2014 // By: Susan Steed On Saturday, 50,000 people marched in protest against austerity. But if you look at the mainstream press the most important thing that happened was that Russell Brand took his top off. This is a shame, not least because the protest wasn’t given the attention it deserved in the media. But what does this actually mean? About 20 years ago an Italian neurophysiologist made a surprise discovery. This helps explain empathy - why you may feel happy around positive people, or wince when someone else gets punched. Why is this important for economics? A bigger challenge is that traditional economics doesn’t include empathy and focuses on individuals. Very few economists working today have tried to look at this. The issue isn’t just in economics, often environmentalists and other campaigners take on its language to advance their cause. So, how would we go about creating an economy built on empathy? It is also easy not to think about what we are eating. Issues Close
Home - The Public Bank Solution Salaire d'efficience Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le salaire d'efficience, en économie du travail, est une hypothèse expliquant la fixation d'un niveau de salaire supérieur à ce qu'expliquerait la seule loi de l'offre et la demande dans un marché en concurrence pure et parfaite, expliquant ainsi une partie du chômage des économies de marché contemporaines. L'hypothèse de ce modèle veut qu'il y ait une liaison positive entre le niveau du salaire et l'effort productif du salarié. Le salaire d'efficience est un concept développé dans le cadre du nouveau keynésianisme (notamment par les économistes Carl Shapiro et Joseph Stiglitz en 1984) pour expliquer une partie du chômage. L'idée n'est pas nouvelle. Dans le modèle du salaire d'efficience, l'origine du déséquilibre se trouve dans un problème d'accès à l'information : les employeurs ne pouvant pas connaître parfaitement l'effort fourni par les salariés dans leur travail et notamment s'ils fournissent l'effort maximal. Portail de l’économie
This City Came Up With a Simple Solution to Homelessness: Housing Salt Lake City’s Housing First initiative has reduced chronic homelessness by 72 percent. Now other cities are giving it a try. A former homeless shelter in Washington DC (Reuters/Jonathan Ernst) Kilee Lowe was sitting in a park when cops picked her up and booked her into jail overnight. After she got out the next morning, she returned to the park. Kilee has been cycling in and out of the criminal justice system for years. “Just because I don’t have a credit card in my pocket,” she says, “does not make me a criminal.” Kilee lives in Salt Lake City, Utah. Not having a roof over your head means living in a continual crisis. Not only that, but they drain tax dollars that could be put to much better use. Salt Lake City crunched the numbers. And more importantly, chronic homelessness has dropped 72%. In the latest video in the OverCriminalized series—produced in partnership with Brave New Films and The Nation—we spoke to people whose lives have been greatly improved by the Housing First program.
Loi de Walras Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Walras. La loi de Walras est le point central de la théorie de l'équilibre général. Elle peut se formuler de la façon suivante : Loi de Walras — Sur l'ensemble des marchés, la somme des demandes nettes pondérées par les prix est égale à zéro. On se sert souvent d'une conséquence de la loi de Walras : Corollaire de la loi de Walras — Dans une économie à N marchés, si N-1 marchés sont en équilibre, alors le N-ième marché est également en équilibre. Autrement dit, si un marché n'est pas équilibré, alors il y a au moins un autre marché qui n'est pas en équilibre. Portail de l’économie
GASLAND - NEW YORK BANS FRACKING! It Takes A Movement- A...