Computer History John Kopplin © 2002 Just a few years after Pascal, the German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (co-inventor with Newton of calculus) managed to build a four-function (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) calculator that he called the stepped reckoner because, instead of gears, it employed fluted drums having ten flutes arranged around their circumference in a stair-step fashion. Although the stepped reckoner employed the decimal number system (each drum had 10 flutes), Leibniz was the first to advocate use of the binary number system which is fundamental to the operation of modern computers. Leibniz is considered one of the greatest of the philosophers but he died poor and alone. Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner (have you ever heard "calculating" referred to as "reckoning"?) Jacquard's Loom showing the threads and the punched cards By selecting particular cards for Jacquard's loom you defined the woven pattern [photo © 2002 IEEE] A close-up of a Jacquard card
Cambridge Digital Library - University of Cambridge Cambridge University Library holds the largest and most important collection of the scientific works of Isaac Newton (1642-1727). Newton was closely associated with Cambridge. He came to the University as a student in 1661, graduating in 1665, and from 1669 to 1701 he held the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics. Under the regulations for this Chair, Newton was required to deposit copies of his lectures in the University Library. In 1699 Newton was appointed Master of the Mint, and in 1703 he was elected President of the Royal Society, a post he occupied until his death. After his death, the manuscripts in Newton's possession passed to his niece Catherine and her husband John Conduitt. In 1872 the fifth earl passed all the Newton manuscripts he had to the University of Cambridge, where they were assessed and a detailed catalogue made. The remainder of the Newton papers, many concerned with alchemy, theology and chronology, were returned to Lord Portsmouth. See also
World’s First Computer Rebuilt, Rebooted After 2,000 Years | Gadget Lab A British museum curator has built a working replica of a 2,000-year-old Greek machine that has been called the world’s first computer. A dictionary-size assemblage of 37 interlocking dials crafted with the precision and complexity of a 19th-century Swiss clock, the Antikythera mechanism was used for modeling and predicting the movements of the heavenly bodies as well as the dates and locations of upcoming Olympic games. The original 81 shards of the Antikythera were recovered from under the sea (near the Greek island of Antikythera) in 1902, rusted and clumped together in a nearly indecipherable mass. Scientists dated it to 150 B.C. Such craftsmanship wouldn’t be seen for another 1,000 years — but its purpose was a mystery for decades. Many scientists have worked since the 1950s to piece together the story, with the help of some very sophisticated imaging technology in recent years, including X-ray and gamma-ray imaging and 3-D computer modeling. Now, though, it has been rebuilt.
'Smart City' knows who needs power, and when Fast forward to the present day and although technology has changed immeasurably, the way we power our cities hasn't. But what if we could bring the grid up to date? That's exactly what they are doing in Mannheim, Germany. Germany has extensive local renewable energy production, but renewable energy sources aren't always available when and where needed. To match energy supply with demand, Mannheim uses broadband power line technology to transmit consumption and supply data over the power grid itself. "I think the power grid can become a brain for the city by all that information that is generated in the grid," said Thomas Wolski, of Power Plus Communications, which runs the "Model City of Mannheim" project. Every house in Mannheim is connected to the smart energy network, which makes the most of renewable energy. "We turned (the existing grid) into a communication platform by adding just small modems of the nodes of the network," said Wolski. Watch the video to find out more.
FONDAZIONE GALILEO GALILEI - Homepage Who was Ada? | Ada Lovelace Day Who was Ada Lovelace? By Sydney Padua, author of The Thrilling Adventures of Lovelace & Babbage. Read the longer biography of Ada Lovelace by Suw Charman-Anderson, taken from our book, A Passion for Science: Stories of Discovery and Invention, but for a short overview of her life and achievements, read on! The woman most often known as ‘Ada Lovelace’ was born Ada Gordon in 1815, sole child of the brief and tempestuous marriage of the erratic poet George Gordon, Lord Byron, and his mathematics-loving wife Annabella Milbanke. Fearing that Ada would inherit her father’s volatile ‘poetic’ temperament, her mother raised her under a strict regimen of science, logic, and mathematics. At the age of 19 she was married to an aristocrat, William King; when King was made Earl of Lovelace in 1838 his wife became Lady Ada King, Countess of Lovelace. The Analytical Engine Her thwarted potential, and her passion and vision for technology, have made her a powerful symbol for modern women in technology.
10 Tips To Reduce Your Anxiety in 10 Minutes Or Less | Treating Anxiety Anxiety, to put it simply, is apprehension over the unknown but you can reduce your anxiety in 10 minutes or less. Whether you are anxious about possibly leaving the oven on, or your five year plan, anxiety manifests itself as both physical and emotional responses in the body. This may leave you feeling exhausted, overwhelmed, and desperate for relief (Why Am I So Tired? Anxiety And Fatigue). Reduce Anxiety By Noticing Your Anxiety Expression Anxiety is a persistent emotion that will always find a way to express itself through the body (Anxiety Symptoms: Recognizing Signs of Anxiety). When your anxiety attacks, you need to know how to manage it quickly and effectively. 10 Ways to Reduce Your Anxiety 1. I am a firm believer that a quick nap can fix, literally, anything. 2. Higher levels of gratitude have been shown to reduce anxiety and depression. 3. Research shows that music can decrease pain in high anxiety individuals(Music Therapy For Treatment Of Psychiatric Disorders). 4. 5. 6. 7.
Computing at Harwell Computing at Harwell Jack Howlett 25 years of Theoretical Physics at Harwell:1954-1979 1. I came to Harwell in the summer of 1948 at the invitation of Dr. Large View We - meaning Hartree's group - had done what at the time was rated a large-scale calculation for Fuchs and Peierls, concerned with the atomic bomb project. Computing then was a completely different world from what it is now. computational services were needed all over the Establishment, these needs were going to grow rapidly and what was wanted was a service available to everyone. It may seem strange today that an enterprise so large and so technologically and scientifically sophisticated should have been planned without a central computing service, but remember, this was 30 years ago and the power and all-pervading nature of computation could not possibly have been realised at the time. This was before the U.K.A.E.A. had been created, when Harwell was still part of the Ministry of Supply. 2. Large View Large View 3. Large View
Jacquard loom This portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on a Jacquard loom and required 24,000 punched cards to create (1839). It was only produced to order. Charles Babbage owned one of these portraits; it inspired him in using perforated cards in his analytical engine. It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London, England. It is based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon (1725), Jean Baptiste Falcon (1728) and Jacques Vaucanson (1740) A static display of a Jacquard loom is the centrepiece of the Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs in Lyon. Live displays of a Jacquard loom are available at a few private museums around Lyon and also twice a day at La Maison des Canuts, as well as at other locations around the world. Principles of operation The term "Jacquard loom" is somewhat inaccurate. Importance in computing The Jacquard head used replaceable punched cards to control a sequence of operations. See also Jacquard weaving References
The 22 Best TED Talks for Fitness, Health, and Happiness Inspiration If you have access to the Internet, you’ve likely seen one: We’re talking about TED Talks. These live-recorded videos are inspirational life lessons from experts in fields from architecture to cardiology and everywhere in between brought (for free) to Internet audiences by TED, a non-profit dedicated to “Ideas Worth Spreading.” There are now thousands of “Talks” on the site — mid-sized videos each with its own “ah-ha!” message or insight. To help curate this free, digital resource, Greatist selected 22 Ted Talks that offer something simple and motivating to apply to everyday life. Fitness 1. Using his knowledge of evolution, anthropologist and author Christopher McDougall explains the surprising ways that running helped early humans run their world. 2. You may know David Blaine as the crazy-impressive magician who endured living in a block of ice for 63 hours and balanced standing atop a 22-inch wide pole 100 feet in the air for 35 hours. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Health 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
Her Code Got Humans on the Moon—And Invented Software Itself Margaret Hamilton wasn’t supposed to invent the modern concept of software and land men on the moon. It was 1960, not a time when women were encouraged to seek out high-powered technical work. Hamilton, a 24-year-old with an undergrad degree in mathematics, had gotten a job as a programmer at MIT, and the plan was for her to support her husband through his three-year stint at Harvard Law. After that, it would be her turn—she wanted a graduate degree in math. But the Apollo space program came along. As a working mother in the 1960s, Hamilton was unusual; but as a spaceship programmer, Hamilton was positively radical. “People used to say to me, ‘How can you leave your daughter? Then, as now, “the guys” dominated tech and engineering. ‘When I first got into it, nobody knew what it was that we were doing. As Hamilton’s career got under way, the software world was on the verge of a giant leap, thanks to the Apollo program launched by John F. Advertisement ‘That would never happen’ But it did.