Sympathetic nervous system The sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system are parts of what is commonly called the autonomic nervous system. (Autonomic = can not be controlled by the mind). You can say that these systems work in balance with each other and directly or indirectly affect almost every structure in the body (e.g. heartfrequence, heartcapacity, lumbar function, kidneys, blood vessels, stomach and intestines) The sympathetic nervous system has an active "pushing" function, the parasympathetic has mainly a relaxing function. The sympathetic nervous system is located to the sympathetic chain, which connects to skin, blood vessels and organs in the body cavity.
Polyvagal Theory CN X. Vagus Nerve. The vagus nerve is the longest of the cranial nerve. Its name is derived from Latin meaning "wandering". True to its name the vagus nerve wanders from the brain stem through organs in the neck, thorax and abdomen. Love: an emergent property of the mammalian autonomic nervous system. The evolution of the autonomic nervous system provides an organizing principle to interpret the adaptive significance of mammalian affective processes including courting, sexual arousal, copulation, and the establishment of enduring social bonds. According to the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995, 1996, 1997), the well-documented phylogenetic shift in the neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system passes through three stages, each with an associated behavioral strategy. The first stage is characterized by a primitive unmyelinated visceral vagus that fosters digestion and responds to threat by depressing metabolic activity. Behaviorally, the first stage is associated with immobilization behaviors. The second stage is characterized by the sympathetic nervous system that is capable of increasing metabolic output and inhibiting the visceral vagus to foster mobilization behaviors necessary for 'fight or flight'. PubMed ID: 9924740
Social Engagement System The ventral vagal system is involved with most aspects of social contact and pleasure. It guides eye contact, hearing, eating, speech, singing, nursing, kissing, smiling, and some would say, direct heart to heart contact. Because of its role in making contact between different people favorable, the ventral-vagal system is a way of achieving personal safety, but it requires a moderate amount of actual safety to develop or stay employed. That is why prolonged danger or stress, or stress or danger early in life, tends to atrophy or impair the development of, the ventral vagal system.
Histology Atlas - Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy A Functional Approach - Anatomy Atlases Section 1. Cells (Plates 1.1 to 1.14) Section 2. Epithelial Tissue (Plates 2.15 to 2.26) Section 3. Connective Tissue (Plates 3.27 to 3.51) Section 4. Blood (Plates 4.57 to 4.62) Section 5. Stephen Porges, Ph.D.: Information and Links Stephen Porges, Ph.D. Stephen Porges: POLYVAGAL THEORY [gives theoretical background for ANS work of Klinghardt] The work of Dr. Stephen Porges, this helps explain some puzzling aspects of human Autonomic Nervous System behavior. Viva Las Vagus Nerve A corny title – but a cool nerve. The 10th of the cranial nerves, it is often called the “Nerve of compassion” because when it’s active, it helps create the “warm-fuzzies” that we feel in our chest when we get a hug or are moved by a chick-flick. The vagus nerve is really a bundle of nerves that originates at the top of the spinal cord and enervates all sorts of organs. Here’s a picture:
How to Correct Your Pelvic Alignment – Blog About Pelvic Pain Your pelvis is made up of several bones that are “fused” together. There is a group on the left side and a group on the right side. They come together in the middle and there is cartilage in the very front called joining them together. This is your pubic symphysis and it is located just above your penis or clitoris. Feel it, this bone is hard and easy to find. Each side, each collection of grouping of bones, is called an innominate.
The Polyvagal Theory Psychophysiology, 32 (1995), 301-318. Cambridge University Press. Printed in the USA. Polyvagal Theory Phylogenetic Subsystems/Stages The vagus nerve is a primary component of the autonomic nervous system. Polyvagal theory outlines the structure and function of the two distinct branches of the vagus, both of which originate in the medulla. More specifically, each branch is associated with a different adaptive behavioral strategy, both of which are inhibitory in nature via the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The vagal system is in opposition to the sympathetic-adrenal system, which is involved in mobilization behaviors. Central pattern generator Central pattern generators (CPGs) are biological neural networks that produce rhythmic patterned outputs without sensory feedback. CPGs have been shown to produce rhythmic outputs resembling normal "rhythmic motor pattern production" even in isolation from motor and sensory feedback from limbs and other muscle targets. To be classified as a rhythmic generator, a CPG requires: 1. "two or more processes that interact such that each process sequentially increases and decreases, and 2. that, as a result of this interaction, the system repeatedly returns to its starting condition. Anatomy and physiology Localization Various molecular, genetic and imaging studies have been conducted as for the localization of the CPGs.