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Libertarian socialism

Libertarian socialism
Overview[edit] Libertarian socialism is a Western philosophy with diverse interpretations, though some general commonalities can be found in its many incarnations. Its proponents generally advocate a worker-oriented system of production and organization in the workplace that in some aspects radically departs from neoclassical economics in favor of democratic cooperatives or common ownership of the means of production (socialism).[33] They propose that this economic system be executed in a manner that attempts to maximize the liberty of individuals and minimize concentration of power or authority (libertarianism). August 17, 1860 edition of libertarian Communist publication Le Libertaire edited by Joseph Déjacque. In a chapter recounting the history of libertarian socialism, economist Robin Hahnel relates that thus far the period where libertarian socialism has had its greatest impact was at the end of the 19th century through the first four decades of the twentieth century. Anarchism[edit]

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Nationalism Nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation. Nationalism involves national identity, by contrast with the related construct of patriotism, which involves the social conditioning and personal behaviors that support a state's decisions and actions.[1] From a psychological perspective, nationalism (national attachment) is distinct from other types of attachment, for example, attachment to a religion or a romantic partner. The desire for interpersonal attachment, or the need to belong, is one of the most fundamental human motivations. From a political or sociological perspective, there are two main perspectives on the origins and basis of nationalism. One is the primordialist perspective that describes nationalism as a reflection of the ancient and perceived evolutionary tendency of humans to organize into distinct groupings based on an affinity of birth.

Anarchist communism Some forms of anarchist communism such as insurrectionary anarchism are strongly influenced by egoism and radical individualism, believing anarcho-communism is the best social system for the realization of individual freedom.[13][14][15][16] Some anarcho-communists view anarcho-communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society.[17][18][19][20][21] Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French Revolution[22][23] but was first formulated as such in the Italian section of the First International.[24] The theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin took importance later as it expanded and developed pro-organizationalist and insurrectionary anti-organizationalist sections.[25] History[edit] Early developments[edit]

Anarcho-syndicalism Anarcho-syndicalism (also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism[1]) is a theory of anarchism which views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and, with that control, influence broader society. Syndicalists consider their economic theories a strategy for facilitating worker self-activity and as an alternative co-operative economic system with democratic values and production centered on meeting human needs. The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are solidarity, direct action (action undertaken without the intervention of third parties such as politicians, bureaucrats and arbitrators) and direct democracy, or workers' self-management. The end goal of anarcho-syndicalism is to abolish the wage system, regarding it as wage slavery. Anarcho-syndicalist theory therefore generally focuses on the labor movement.[2]

Bolshevik The Bolsheviks were the majority faction in a crucial vote, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[6] The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which would later become the chief constituent of the Soviet Union in 1922. The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a major organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism. History of the split[edit] In the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, held in Brussels and London during August 1903, Lenin and Julius Martov disagreed over the membership rules.

Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks The left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks were a series of rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks by rival left-wing parties that started soon after the October Revolution, continued through the Russian Civil War, and lasted into the first few years of Soviet rule. They were led or supported by left-wing groups such as some factions of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, Left Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and anarchists. The uprisings started in 1918 and continued during and after the Civil War until around 1924. The Bolsheviks increasingly abandoned attempts to invite these groups to join the government and instead suppressed them with force.

Capitalism The degree of competition, role of intervention and regulation, and scope of state ownership varies across different models of capitalism.[5] Economists, political economists, and historians have taken different perspectives in their analysis of capitalism and recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire capitalism, welfare capitalism, crony capitalism and state capitalism; each highlighting varying degrees of dependency on markets, public ownership, and inclusion of social policies. The extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, is a matter of politics and policy.

Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes The Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes was a 19th Century English political movement and organization. Its aims were ambitious and were to:- reduce working hourspromote franchise extensionpromote the international fraternity of workersincrease recreational and educational opportunities Left mythology and neoliberal globalization: Syriza and Podemos, Takis Fotopoulos, The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY, Vol. 11, Nos. 1/2 (Winter-Summer 2015) Therefore, the rise to power of these parties far from being, (as Tsipras, the leader of the Greek Syriza party stressed to the delight of the world liberal “Left”), “a ‘historic opportunity’ for a left alternative to the current capitalist ‘European model’,”[4] in my opinion, will simply lead to the end of the Left in Southern Europe. On this, the Mediterranean Left will simply follow belatedly the fate of the Left in the “North” (Northern Europe, North America etc.) which is already dead and buried, mainly as a result of the fact that it has been integrated into the NWO of neoliberal globalization, at least since the late ‘90s. That is, since the time when, instead of supporting the movement against globalization that was developing at the time, it systematically tried and eventually managed to emasculate it, from an antisystemic into a reformist movement ― a fact that inevitably led to its demise, to the great delight of Transnational Corporations! [6] See e.g.