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Architecture

Architecture
Brunelleschi, in the building of the dome of Florence Cathedral in the early 15th-century, not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.[1][2] Architecture (Latin architectura, after the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων – arkhitekton – from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder, carpenter, mason") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean: Architecture has to do with planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience to reflect functional, technical, social, environmental and aesthetic considerations. The word "architecture" has also been adopted to describe other designed systems, especially in information technology.[3] History[edit] Related:  Theories in Visual artsEngineering sciences

Composition (visual arts) In the visual arts—in particular painting, graphic design, photography, and sculpture—composition is the placement or arrangement of visual elements or ingredients in a work of art, as distinct from the subject of a work. It can also be thought of as the organization of the elements of art according to the principles of art. The term composition means 'putting together,' and can apply to any work of art, from music to writing to photography, that is arranged or put together using conscious thought. In the visual arts, composition is often used interchangeably with various terms such as design, form, visual ordering, or formal structure, depending on the context. In graphic design for press and desktop publishing composition is commonly referred to as page layout. The various visual elements, known as elements of design, formal elements, or elements of art, are the vocabulary with which the visual artist composes. The elements of design are: Main article: Rule of thirds

Engineering The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET)[1] has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation or safety to life and property.[2][3] One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so may have more formal designations such as Professional Engineer, Designated Engineering Representative, Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Ingenieur or European Engineer. History[edit] Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Ancient era[edit] Renaissance era[edit] Modern era[edit]

Architectural theory Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing, and writing about architecture. Architectural theory is taught in most architecture schools and is practiced by the world's leading architects. Some forms that architecture theory takes are the lecture or dialogue, the treatise or book, and the paper project or competition entry. History[edit] Antiquity[edit] There is little information or evidence about major architectural theory in antiquity, until the 1st century BCE, with the work of Vitruvius. Vitruvius was a Roman writer, architect, and engineer active in the 1st century BCE. Middle Ages[edit] Throughout the Middle Ages, architectural knowledge was passed by transcription, word of mouth and technically in master builders' lodges.[2] Due to the laborious nature of transcription, few examples of architectural theory were penned in this time period. Renaissance[edit] Enlightenment[edit] 19th century[edit] 20th century[edit] Contemporary[edit]

Visual arts education Visual arts education is the area of learning that is based upon only what one can see, visual arts—drawing, painting, sculpture, and design in jewelry, pottery, weaving, fabrics, etc. and design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home furnishings. Contemporary topics include photography, video, film, design, computer art, etc. Overview[edit] The first recorded art schools were established in Italy, as mentioned by Leonardo Da Vinci. The Italians created beautiful free standing statues of people. They also created exquisite pottery covered with pictures of great landscape scenes. The Italian's art was similar to the style of the Greeks, though they preferred to create paintings of nature. Apprenticeship[edit] Historically art was taught in Europe via the atelier method system[1] where artists took on apprentices who learned their trade in much the same way as that of guilds such as the stonemasons or goldsmiths. Approaches[edit] Prominent models include:

Applied engineering (field) Applied engineering is the field concerned with the application of management, design, and technical skills for the design and integration of systems, the execution of new product designs, the improvement of manufacturing processes, and the management and direction of physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization. Applied-engineering degreed programs typically include instruction in basic engineering principles, project management, industrial processes, production and operations management, systems integration and control, quality control, and statistics.[1] On completion of an applied engineering program, students will demonstrate the following management competencies that clearly distinguish them from traditional engineering graduates: • Use appropriate statistical techniques in variable and attribute control charts and in sampling tables for continuous improvement. • Evaluate and/or implement total quality systems in industry. Associate Degree Programs

History of architecture The Architect's Dream by Thomas Cole (1840) shows a vision of buildings in the historical styles of the Western tradition, from Ancient Egypt through to Classical Revival A view of Chuo-ku, Osaka, Japan showing buildings of a modern Asian city, ranging from the medieval Osaka Castle to skyscrapers The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regiões, overarching stylistic trends, and dates. Neolithic architecture[edit] The neolithic people in the Levant, Anatolia, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Central Asia were great builders, utilizing mud-brick to construct houses and villages. In Europe, long houses built from wattle and daub were constructed. Ancient Near East Africa and Mediterranean[edit] Ancient Mesopotamia[edit] Ancient Egyptian architecture[edit] Ancient architecture is characterized by this tension between the divine and mortal world. Greek Architecture[edit] Roman Architecture[edit] Examples of key Roman architectural forms

Anatomy Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of animals and their parts; it is also referred to as zootomy to separate it from human anatomy. In some of its facets, anatomy is related to embryology and comparative anatomy, which itself is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny.[1] Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine. Definition[edit] Human compared to elephant frame Anatomical chart by Vesalius, Epitome, 1543 The discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy.[4] Gross anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye, and also includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy, the study by sight of the external body features. The term "anatomy" is commonly taken to refer to human anatomy. Animal tissues[edit] A diagram of an animal cell Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts.

Applied mathematics Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that deals with mathematical methods that find use in science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry. Thus, "applied mathematics" is a mathematical science with specialized knowledge. The term "applied mathematics" also describes the professional specialty in which mathematicians work on practical problems by formulating and studying mathematical models. In the past, practical applications have motivated the development of mathematical theories, which then became the subject of study in pure mathematics where abstract concepts are studied for their own sake. The activity of applied mathematics is thus intimately connected with research in pure mathematics. History[edit] Divisions[edit] Today, the term "applied mathematics" is used in a broader sense. There is no consensus as to what the various branches of applied mathematics are. Utility[edit] Status in academic departments[edit] Associated mathematical sciences[edit]

Architecture criticism Architecture criticism is a confused topic. Everyday criticism relates to published or broadcast critiques of buildings, whether completed or not, both in terms of news and other criteria. In many cases, criticism amounts to an assessment of the architect's success in meeting his or her own aims and objectives and those of others. The assessment may consider the subject from the perspective of some wider context, which may involve planning, social or aesthetic issues. Criticism is also a branch of academic study, practised not by architectural journalists but by architects and scholars. Criteria[edit] The critic's task is to assess how successful the architect and others involved with the project have been in meeting both the criteria the project set out to meet and those that the critic himself feels to be important. Architectural journalists[edit] Contemporary critics working for major newspapers include: Specialist periodicals[edit] List of architecture magazines See also[edit]

Color theory In the visual arts, color theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination. There are also definitions (or categories) of colors based on the color wheel: primary color, secondary color and tertiary color. Although color theory principles first appeared in the writings of Leone Battista Alberti (c.1435) and the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (c.1490), a tradition of "colory theory" began in the 18th century, initially within a partisan controversy around Isaac Newton's theory of color (Opticks, 1704) and the nature of so-called primary colors. From there it developed as an independent artistic tradition with only superficial reference to colorimetry and vision science. Color abstractions[edit] The foundations of pre-20th-century color theory were built around "pure" or ideal colors, characterized by sensory experiences rather than attributes of the physical world. Thus, the visual impact of "yellow" vs. Achromatic colors[edit]

Applied physics Applied physics is physics which is intended for a particular technological or practical use.[1] It is usually considered as a bridge or a connection between "pure" physics and engineering.[2] "Applied" is distinguished from "pure" by a subtle combination of factors such as the motivation and attitude of researchers and the nature of the relationship to the technology or science that may be affected by the work.[3] It usually differs from engineering in that an applied physicist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is using physics or conducting physics research with the aim of developing new technologies or solving an engineering problem. This approach is similar to that of applied mathematics. Applied physicists can also be interested in the use of physics for scientific research.

SANAA: Falling Upwards On first glance the eye rushes to analyze, it strives to comprehend objects, composition and meaning. In the foray into visual ordering and synaptic response the eye is lead astray. Look again; objects disappear, expand, melt, figures are juxtaposed as objects; recognizable elements are left indescribable, rendered multiple and disoriented. The eye is left to contemplate a rich fabric of improbabilities and sequential alternations. At the point of recognition, the composition is thrust into a state of destabilized visual flux. In many of the works of the Belgian artist René Magritte, the ideas of disorientation, ambiguity and illogic are intertwined, complicating a question of representation. Top and above: Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, 2009, Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA. Rolex Learning Center, 2010, Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa / SANAA. At one point, however, the ceiling was the devilish cad, the trickster of Modernism.

Perspective (graphical) Staircase in two-point perspective. Perspective (from Latin: perspicere to see through) in the graphic arts, such as drawing, is an approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects are drawn: Smaller as their distance from the observer increasesForeshortened: the size of an object's dimensions along the line of sight are relatively shorter than dimensions across the line of sight A cube in two-point perspective Rays of light travel from the object, through the picture plane, and to the viewer's eye. Linear perspective always works by representing the light that passes from a scene through an imaginary rectangle (the painting), to the viewer's eye. Perspective drawings have a horizon line, which is often implied. Any perspective representation of a scene that includes parallel lines has one or more vanishing points in a perspective drawing.

Ceramic engineering Simulation of the outside of the Space Shuttle as it heats up to over 1,500 °C (2,730 °F) during re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere Bearing components made from 100% silicon nitride Si3N4 Ceramic bread knife Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, with long-range order on atomic scale. The special character of ceramic materials gives rise to many applications in materials engineering, electrical engineering, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. History[edit] The word "ceramic" is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos) meaning pottery. Leo Morandi's tile glazing line (circa 1945) E.G. Military[edit] Soldiers pictured during the 2003 Iraq War seen through IR transparent Night Vision Goggles Modern industry[edit] Glass-ceramics[edit] A high strength glass-ceramic cook-top with negligible thermal expansion. Processing steps[edit]

TEST: Clémence JOST, Paris 75014 by mindshare2000 May 28

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