Dimethyltryptamine History Another historical milestone is the discovery of DMT in plants frequently used by Amazonian natives as additive to the vine Banisteriopsis caapi to make ayahuasca decoctions. Biosynthesis Biosynthetic pathway for N,N-dimethyltryptamine This transmethylation mechanism has been repeatedly and consistently proven by radiolabeling of SAM methyl group with carbon-14 (14C-CH3)SAM). Evidence in mammals In 2013, researchers first reported DMT in the pineal gland microdialysate of rodents. A study published in 2014 reported the biosynthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in the human melanoma cell line SK-Mel-147 including details on its metabolism by peroxidases.  In a 2014 paper, a group first demonstrated the immunomodulatory potential of DMT and 5-MeO-DMT through the Sigma-1_receptor of human immune cells. INMT Endogenous DMT The first claimed detection of mammalian endogenous DMT was published in June 1965: German researchers F.
Psychonautics Psychonautics (from the Greek ψυχή (psychē "soul/spirit/mind") and ναύτης (naútēs "sailor/navigator")—a sailor of the mind/soul) refers both to a methodology for describing and explaining the subjective effects of altered states of consciousness, including those induced by meditation or mind-altering substances, and to a research paradigm in which the researcher voluntarily immerses himself or herself into an altered mental state in order to explore the accompanying experiences. The term has been applied diversely, to cover all activities by which altered states are induced and utilized for spiritual purposes or the exploration of the human condition, including shamanism, lamas of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, sensory deprivation, and archaic/modern drug users who use entheogenic substances in order to gain deeper insights and spiritual experiences. A person who uses altered states for such exploration is known as a psychonaut. Etymology and categorization Peter J.
Endocrine system In addition to the specialised endocrine organs mentioned above, many other organs that are part of other body systems, such as bone, kidney, liver, heart and gonads, have secondary endocrine functions. For example the kidney secretes endocrine hormones such as erythropoietin and renin. A number of glands that signal each other in sequence are usually referred to as an axis, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. As opposed to endocrine factors that travel considerably longer distances via the circulatory system, other signaling molecules, such as paracrine factors involved in paracrine signalling diffuse over a relatively short distance. The word endocrine derives from the Greek words ἐνδο- endo- "inside, within," and κρίνειν krinein "to separate, distinguish". Endocrine organs and known secreted hormones Endocrine glands in the human head and neck and their hormones Hypothalamus Pineal body (epiphysis) Pituitary gland (hypophysis) Thyroid Skin
Indole alkaloid History The action of some indole alkaloids has been known for ages. Aztecs used the psilocybin mushrooms which contain alkaloids psilocybin and psilocin. Consumption of rye and related cereals contaminated with the fungus Claviceps purpurea causes ergot poisoning and ergotism in humans and other mammals. The first indole alkaloid, strychnine, was isolated by Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou in 1818 from the plants of the Strychnos genus. Classification Depending on their biosynthesis, two types of indole alkaloids are distinguished; isoprenoids and non-isoprenoids. Non-isoprenoid: Simple derivatives of indoleSimple derivatives of β-carbolinePyrroloindole alkaloidsIsoprenoid: There are also purely structural classifications based on the presence of carbazole, β-carboline or other units in the carbon skeleton of the alkaloid molecule. Some 200 dimeric indole alkaloids are known with two indole groups. Non-isoprenoid indole alkaloids
Melatonin Melatonin The hormone can be used as a sleep aid and in the treatment of sleep disorders. It can be taken orally as capsules, tablets, or liquid. It is also available in a form to be used sublingually, and there are transdermal patches. There have been few clinical trials, particularly long-term ones, in the use of melatonin in humans. Discovery Biosynthesis Melatonin biosynthesis involves four enzymatic steps from the essential dietary amino acid tryptophan, which follows a serotonin pathway. In bacteria, protists, fungi, and plants melatonin is synthesized indirectly with tryptophan as an intermediate product of the shikimic acid pathway. Regulation In vertebrates, melatonin secretion is regulated by norepinephrine. It is principally blue light, around 460 to 480 nm, that suppresses melatonin, proportional to the light intensity and length of exposure. Animals Plants Functions Circadian rhythm Antioxidant Immune system Medical uses
Psilocin Psilocin (also known as 4-OH-DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin), is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance. It is present in most psychedelic mushrooms together with its phosphorylated counterpart psilocybin. Psilocin is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The mind-altering effects of psilocin are highly variable and subjective and resemble those of LSD and DMT. Chemistry Psilocin and its phosphorylated cousin, psilocybin, were first isolated and named in 1958 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann. Psilocin is relatively unstable in solution due to its phenolic hydroxy (-OH) group. Structural analogs Sulphur analogs are known with a benzothienyl replacement as well as 4-SH-DMT. N1-methylpsilocin is a functionally 5-HT2C receptor preferring agonists. 4-fluoro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is known. O-Acetylpsilocin is an acetylized analog of psilocin, also known as 4-AcO-DMT. Pharmacology
Serotonin Serotonin /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnɨn/ or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness. Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they release serotonin, where it serves as a vasoconstrictor and helps to regulate hemostasis and blood clotting. In addition to animals, serotonin is found in fungi and plants. Serotonin's presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side-effect of serotonin injection. Functions Receptors Gauge of food availability (appetite) Effects of food content 
Psilocybin Psilocybin[nb 1] (/ˌsɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ SIL-ə-SY-bin) is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms. The most potent are members of the genus Psilocybe, such as P. azurescens, P. semilanceata, and P. cyanescens, but psilocybin has also been isolated from about a dozen other genera. As a prodrug, psilocybin is quickly converted by the body to psilocin, which has mind-altering effects similar (in some aspects) to those of LSD, mescaline, and DMT. In general, the effects include euphoria, visual and mental hallucinations, changes in perception, a distorted sense of time, and spiritual experiences, and can include possible adverse reactions such as nausea and panic attacks. History Early Modern Albert Hofmann (shown here in 1993) purified psilocybin and psilocin from Psilocybe mexicana in the late 1950s. Occurrence
Conifer cone The male cone (microstrobilus or pollen cone) is structurally similar across all conifers, differing only in small ways (mostly in scale arrangement) from species to species. Extending out from a central axis are microsporophylls (modified leaves). Under each microsporophyll is one or several microsporangia (pollen sacs). The female cone (megastrobilus, seed cone, or ovulate cone) contains ovules which, when fertilized by pollen, become seeds. The female cone structure varies more markedly between the different conifer families, and is often crucial for the identification of many species of conifers. Female cones of the conifer families Pinaceae cones Intact and disintegrated fir cones The members of the pine family (pines, spruces, firs, cedars, larches, etc.) have cones that are imbricate (that is, with scales overlapping each other like fish scales). Araucariaceae cones Podocarpaceae cones Berry-like Podocarpus cone Cupressaceae cones Sciadopityaceae cones
2C-B History 2C-B was synthesized from 2,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by Alexander Shulgin in 1974. It first saw use among the psychiatric community as an aid during therapy. Internationally, 2C-B is a Schedule II drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In the Netherlands, 2C-B became a list I substance of the Opium Law despite no health incidents occurring. Patterns of use 2C-B first became popularized in the United States as a short-lived legal substitute for the street drug Ecstasy when MDMA became illegal in 1985. Many 2C-B users are young adults who attend raves. Though 2C-B is still used in the rave subculture, commonly mistaken for and/or sold as Ecstasy, its intentional use has become more common. In recent years, 2C-B has emerged as the drug of choice for club drug users in Colombia. Street prices range between $10–30 per tablet in the United States when bought in small quantities. Larger retail purchases cost between $200 and $500 per gram.
Pineal gland The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body, conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone, which affects the modulation of sleep patterns in both seasonal and circadian rhythms. Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name), and it is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. Nearly all vertebrate species possess a pineal gland. The gland has been compared to the photoreceptive, so-called third parietal eye present in the epithalamus of some animal species, which is also called the pineal eye. Structure The pineal gland is reddish-gray and about the size of a grain of rice (5–8 mm) in humans, located just rostro-dorsal to the superior colliculus and behind and beneath the stria medullaris, between the laterally positioned thalamic bodies. Blood supply Histology
Datura wrightii Datura wrightii or Sacred Datura is the name of a poisonous perennial plant and ornamental flower of southwestern North America. It is sometimes used as a hallucinogen. Datura wrightii is classified as a deliriant and an anticholinergic. It is a vigorous herbaceous perennial that grows 30 cm to 1.5 m tall and wide. The leaves are broad and rounded at the base, tapering to a point, often with wavy margins. The seeds are borne in a spiny, globular capsule 3 to 4 cm in diameter, which opens when fully ripe. Datura wrightii is found in northern Mexico and the adjoining U. Other names Seed pods The scientific name has frequently been given as Datura meteloides Dunal, but this name is actually a synonym of D. inoxia Mill., a Mexican plant with a narrower flower having 10 rather than 5 "teeth" at the rim. Toxicity All parts of Datura plants contain dangerous levels of poison and may be fatal if ingested by humans or other animals, including livestock and pets. Datura
Tryptamine Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid found in plants, fungi, and animals. It contains an indole ring structure, and is structurally similar to the amino acid tryptophan, from which it derives its name. Tryptamine is found in trace amounts in the brains of mammals and is believed to play a role as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. The tryptamine chemical structure is the backbone for a group of compounds termed collectively tryptamines. This group includes many biologically active compounds, including neurotransmitters and psychedelic drugs. The concentration of tryptamine in rat brains is about 3.5 pmol/g. Plants containing tryptamine Many plants contain small amounts of tryptamine, for example, as a possible intermediate in one biosynthetic pathway to the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid. Higher concentrations can be found in many Acacia species. Role in vertebrates Tryptamine derivatives General structure of substituted tryptamines Synthesis 
Bhang This article is about a preparation of cannabis leaves and flowers. For the similarly-named cannabis pipe, see Bong. Bhang (Hindi: भाँग) is a preparation from the leaves and flowers (buds) of the female cannabis plant, consumed as a beverage in the Indian subcontinent. Indian subcontinent Bhang has been used as an intoxicant for centuries in the Indian subcontinent. History Bhang has been used in India since Vedic times, and is an integral part of North Indian culture. In 1596, Dutchman Jan Huyghen van Linschoten spent three pages on "Bangue" in his historic work documenting his journeys in the East, also mentioning the Egyptian Hashish, Turkish Boza, Turkish Bernavi, and Arabic Bursj forms of consumption. The historian Richard Davenport-Hines lists Thomas Bowrey as the first Westerner to document the use of bhang. Preparation Anywhere on the ghats, one can find large number of men engaged in the process of preparing bhang. Culture See also References