In science and philosophy, a paradigm /ˈpærədaɪm/ is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. Etymology Paradigm comes from Greek παράδειγμα (paradeigma), "pattern, example, sample" from the verb παραδείκνυμι (paradeiknumi), "exhibit, represent, expose" and that from παρά (para), "beside, beyond" and δείκνυμι (deiknumi), "to show, to point out". In rhetoric, paradeigma is known as a type of proof. The Merriam-Webster Online dictionary defines this usage as "a philosophical and theoretical framework of a scientific school or discipline within which theories, laws, and generalizations and the experiments performed in support of them are formulated; broadly: a philosophical or theoretical framework of any kind Scientific paradigm An example of a currently accepted paradigm would be the standard model of physics. Paradigm shifts
Syntagmatic analysisSyntagmatic means one element selects the other element either to precede it or to follow it. For example, the definitive article "the" selects a noun and not a verb.Paradigm shiftA paradigm shift (or revolutionary science) is, according to Thomas Kuhn, in his influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), a change in the basic assumptions, or paradigms, within the ruling theory of science. It is in contrast to his idea of normal science. According to Kuhn, "A paradigm is what members of a scientific community, and they alone, share" (The Essential Tension, 1977). Kuhnian paradigm shifts Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way. An epistemological paradigm shift was called a "scientific revolution" by epistemologist and historian of science Thomas Kuhn in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. A scientific revolution occurs, according to Kuhn, when scientists encounter anomalies that cannot be explained by the universally accepted paradigm within which scientific progress has thereto been made. M.
Syntagma (linguistics)At the lexical level, syntagmatic structure in a language is the combination of words according to the rules of syntax for that language. For example English uses determiner + adjective + noun, e.g. the big house. Another language might use determiner + noun + adjective (Spanish la casa grande) and therefore have a different syntagmatic structure. At a higher level, narrative structures feature a realistic temporal flow guided by tension and relaxation; thus, for example, events or rhetorical figures may be treated as syntagmas of epic structures. Middleton, Richard (1990/2002).Main Page - Metagovernment - Government of, by, and for all the peopleParadigmatic analysisDefinition of terms Jakobson and Ritchie Roman Jakobson introduced a theory to explain the function of spoken language in human communication. the various component elements forming language, andwhat humans do with the language when they use it. Applied to music Paradigmatic analysis assumes that Roman Jakobson's description of the poetic system (1960, p. 358) applies to music and that in both a "projection of the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection on to the axis of combination" occurs. Notes References
The Next EdgeSememeA sememe (from the Greek: σημαίνω, sēmaino, "mean, signify") is a semantic language unit of meaning, correlative to a morpheme. The concept is relevant in structural semiotics. Denotational 1: Primary denotation, for example "head" (body);Denotational 2: Secondary denotation by resemblance with other denotation: "head" (ship);Connotational 1: High position, as the role or function of "head" in the operation of the human body;Connotational 2: Emotive, e.g., meaning in "honey";Connotational 3: Evaluative, e.g., meaning in "sneak" – move silently and secretly for a bad purpose See also Notes Bibliography Bazell, Charles Ernest (1954).
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