Second death The second death is an eschatological concept in Judaism and Christianity related to punishment after a first, natural, death. Judaism Although the term is not found in the Hebrew Bible, Sysling in his study (1996) of Teḥiyyat ha-metim (Hebrew; "resurrection of the dead") in the Palestinian Targums identifies a consistent usage of the term "second death" in texts of the Second Temple period and early Rabbinical writings. In most cases this "second death" is identical with the judgment, following resurrection, in Gehinnom at the Last Day. Targum Deuteronomy In Targum Neofiti (Neof.) and the fragments (FTP and FTV) the "second death" is the death the wicked die. Targum Isaiah Targum Isaiah has three occurrences. Targum Jeremiah Targum Psalms The majority reading of Targum Psalm 49:11 has the Aramaic translation "For the wise see that the evildoers are judged in Gehinnom". Rabbinic interpretations Christianity Different views See also
Temptation More informally, temptation may be used to mean "the state of being attracted and enticed" without anything to do with moral, ethical, or ideological valuation; for example, one may say that a piece of food looks "tempting" even though eating it would result in no negative consequences. Religious usage Temptation has implications deeply rooted in Judaism and the The Old Testament, starting with the story of Eve and the original sin. In the text of the Lord's Prayer, the King James Version uses "temptation" to translate the Greek word πειρασμός peirasmos. This word has nothing to do with "temptation" with moral-ethical or spiritual-eschatological overtones. Non-religious usage Temptation is usually used in a loose sense to describe actions which indicate a lack of self control. In advertising, "temptation" is a theme common to many of the marketing and advertising techniques used to make products more attractive. See also References
Afterlife Definitions Old Earth creationism Old Earth creationism is an umbrella term for a number of types of creationism, including gap creationism, progressive creationism, and evolutionary creationism. Old Earth creationism is typically more compatible with mainstream scientific thought on the issues of physics, chemistry, geology and the age of the Earth, in comparison to young Earth creationism. Types of old Earth creationism Gap creationism Gap creationism states that life was immediately and recently created on a pre-existing old Earth. "In the beginning ... the earth was formless and void." This is taken by Gap creationists to imply that the earth already existed, but had passed into decay during an earlier age of existence, and was now being "shaped anew". Progressive creationism This view of creationism allows for and accepts fluctuation within defined species but rejects transitional evolution as a viable mechanism to create a gradual ascent from unicellular organisms to advanced life.
Serpent (Bible) In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Genesis refers to the serpent who was partly responsible for the Fall of Man (Gen 3:1-20). Serpent is also used to describe sea monsters. Examples of these identifications are in the Book of Isaiah where a reference is made to a serpent-like Leviathan (Isaiah 27:1), and in the Book of Amos where a serpent resides at the bottom of the sea (Amos 9:3). The Hebrew word nahash is used to identify the serpent that appears in Genesis 3:1, in the Garden of Eden. God placed Adam in the Garden to tend it and warned Adam not to eat the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, "for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die Debate about the serpent in Eden is whether it should be viewed figuratively or as a literal animal. 20th century scholars such as W. The Book of Isaiah expounds on the description of these fiery serpents as "flying saraphs"(YLT), or flying dragons, in the land of trouble and anguish (Isaiah 30:6).
Tree of the knowledge of good and evil In Genesis Motif Composition In the phrase, tree of knowledge of good and evil, the tree imparts knowledge of tov wa-ra, "good and bad". The traditional translation is "good and evil", but tov wa-ra is a fixed expression denoting "everything". Religious views Judaism In Jewish tradition, the Tree of Knowledge and the eating of its fruit represents the beginning of the mixture of good and evil together. In Kabbalah, the sin of the Tree of Knowledge (called Cheit Eitz HaDa'at) brought about the great task of beirurim, sifting through the mixture of good and evil in the world to extract and liberate the sparks of holiness trapped therein. Since evil has no independent existence, it depends on holiness to draw down the Divine life-force, on whose "leftovers" it then feeds and derives existence. Once evil is separated from holiness through beirurim, its source of life is cut off, causing the evil to disappear. Christianity Islam Other cultures
Bibliography of Near-Death Experiences and Related Topics The following list of titles makes no pretense at being comprehensive, but is simply a starting point for books about the near-death experience (NDE). This particular list includes most of the original titles in the field, because it is their descriptive reports upon which most subsequent work has built. Quite a few of the early titles are out of print, but most are available from used book sources; for an out-of-print title, check your library, Amazon, or other booksellers for a used copy. Please keep in mind, especially when reading the autobiographical works, that no single viewpoint represents the entire field of near-death studies. Descriptive Studies (basic introduction to near-death experiences) Readers General interest Distressing Gay and Lesbian Hospice and Nearing Death Awareness Brain-function perspective Spiritual Emergency Suicide Related Topics, worth reading Autobiography/Biography (a sampling of the many titles available)
Creation of man from clay Fashioning a man out of clay According to Genesis 2:7 "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."According to the Qur'an[23:12–15], God created man from clay.According to greek mythology (see Hesiod's poem Theogeny), Prometheus created man from clay, while Athena breathed life into them.According to Chinese mythology (see Chu Ci and Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era), Nüwa molded figures from the yellow earth, giving them life and the ability to bear children.According to Egyptian mythology the god Khnum creates human children from clay before placing them into their mother's womb. انا خلقنا الانسان من صلصال من حمإ مسنون reference from sour at alhijer holy Quran
Garden of Eden The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel. The "garden of God", not called Eden, is mentioned in Genesis 14, and the "trees of the garden" are mentioned in Ezekiel 31. The Book of Zechariah and the Book of Psalms also refer to trees and water in relation to the temple without explicitly mentioning Eden. Traditionally, the favoured derivation of the name "Eden" was from the Akkadian edinnu, derived from a Sumerian word meaning "plain" or "steppe". Eden is now believed to be more closely related to an Aramaic root word meaning "fruitful, well-watered." The Hebrew term is translated "pleasure" in Sarah's secret saying in Genesis 18:12. Biblical narratives Eden in Genesis The Lord God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground—trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. Eden in Ezekiel Proposed locations
Tree of life The tree of knowledge, connecting to heaven and the underworld, and the tree of life, connecting all forms of creation, are both forms of the world tree or cosmic tree, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, and are portrayed in various religions and philosophies as the same tree. Religion and mythology Various trees of life are recounted in folklore, culture and fiction, often relating to immortality or fertility. They had their origin in religious symbolism. Ayyavazhi In Akilathirattu Ammanai, the source of the Ayyavazhi Mythology, life is considered as an Asura, a power-seeking entity which evolved from nature and survives by getting its energy from nature through offerings, boons from the supreme God-head Siva. The narration, in metaphorical language, that the Kroni took birth in the first Yuga and was fragmented into six, advocates for an evolutionary tree of Life. Ancient Persia Ancient Egypt Worshipping Osiris, Isis, and Horus Armenia Assyria
Distressing Near-Death Experiences This page is also available as a brochure (PDF) suitable for printing and distribution, though generally this page is kept more up-to-date. (Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader which is available for free download.) If you have had a distressing near-death experience, or know someone who has, or even have merely heard of the phenomenon, you're probably interested to know more about such experiences. This page will provide basic information and will direct you to additional resources on the subject. What is a Distressing Near-Death Experience? Near-death experiences (NDEs) are often profound psychospiritual events. Greyson and Bush (1996) classified 50 reports of distressing NDEs into three types: Rommer (2000) speculated a fourth type, the rarest of all, in which the NDEr feels negatively judged by a Higher Power during their NDE life review in which, typically, the experiencer re-views and re-experiences every moment of their life. How Common Are Distressing NDEs? Who Has Distressing NDEs?
Creator deity Polytheism Platonic demiurge Monolatrism Monism Monism has its origin in Hellenistic philosophy as a concept of all things deriving from a single substance or being. "Pantheists are ‘monists’...they believe that there is only one Being, and that all other forms of reality are either modes (or appearances) of it or identical with it." Although, like Baruch Spinoza, some pantheists may also be monists, and monism may even be essential to some versions of pantheism (like Spinoza's), not all pantheists are monists. In Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is the abstract notion of "the Absolute" from which the universe takes its origin and at an ultimate level, all assertions of a distinction between Brahman, other gods and creation are meaningless (monism). Buddhism The Buddha rejected the existence of a creator deity, denied endorsing many views on creation and stated that questions on the origin of the world are not ultimately useful for ending suffering.
Intelligent design Intelligent design (ID) is the pseudoscientific view that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection." Educators, philosophers, and the scientific community have demonstrated that ID is a religious argument, a form of creationism which lacks empirical support and offers no tenable hypotheses. Proponents argue that it is "an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins" that challenges the methodological naturalism inherent in modern science, while conceding that they have yet to produce a scientific theory. The leading proponents of ID are associated with the Discovery Institute, a politically conservative think tank based in the United States. History Origin of the concept Origin of the term Of Pandas and People was the first modern intelligent design book. Of Pandas and People Concepts Irreducible complexity Specified complexity In 1986, Charles B.
History of creationism The history of creationism relates to the history of thought based on the premise that the natural universe had a beginning, and came into being supernaturally. The term creationism in its broad sense covers a wide range of views and interpretations, and was not in common use before the late 19th century. Throughout recorded history, many people have viewed the universe as a created entity. Many ancient historical accounts from around the world refer to or imply a creation of the earth and universe. Although specific historical understandings of creationism have used varying degrees of empirical, spiritual and/or philosophical investigations, they are all based on the view that the universe was created. Pre-scientific era Early history Around 45 BCE, Cicero made a teleological argument that anticipated the watchmaker analogy,[improper synthesis?] When you see a sundial or a water-clock, you see that it tells the time by design and not by chance. Protoscience