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Afterlife

Afterlife
Ancient Egyptian papyrus depicting the journey into the afterlife. Paradise of Bhaishajyaguru discovered at the Mogao Caves. [edit] In metaphysical models, theists generally believe some sort of afterlife awaits people when they die. Many religions, whether they believe in the soul's existence in another world like Christianity, Islam and many pagan belief systems, or in reincarnation like many forms of Hinduism and Buddhism, believe that one's status in the afterlife is a reward or punishment for their conduct during life. Reincarnation[edit] Reincarnation refers to an afterlife concept found among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs, Rosicrucians, Theosophists, Spiritists, and Wiccans. One consequence of reincarnationist beliefs is that our current lives are both afterlife and a beforelife. Heaven and hell[edit] Limbo[edit] Purgatory[edit] The notion of purgatory is associated particularly with the Catholic Church. Anglicans of the Anglo-Catholic tradition generally also hold to the belief. Related:  Kevin Wendell CrumbDeath and Afterlife

Second death The second death is an eschatological concept in Judaism and Christianity related to punishment after a first, natural, death. Judaism[edit] Although the term is not found in the Hebrew Bible, Sysling in his study (1996) of Teḥiyyat ha-metim (Hebrew; "resurrection of the dead") in the Palestinian Targums identifies a consistent usage of the term "second death" in texts of the Second Temple period and early Rabbinical writings. In most cases this "second death" is identical with the judgment, following resurrection, in Gehinnom at the Last Day.[1] Targum Deuteronomy[edit] In Targum Neofiti (Neof.) and the fragments (FTP and FTV) the "second death" is the death the wicked die.[2] Targum Isaiah[edit] Targum Isaiah has three occurrences. Targum Jeremiah[edit] Targum Psalms[edit] The majority reading of Targum Psalm 49:11 has the Aramaic translation "For the wise see that the evildoers are judged in Gehinnom". Rabbinic interpretations[edit] Christianity[edit] Different views[edit] See also[edit]

Medieval philosophy Medieval philosophy is the philosophy that existed through the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the Renaissance in the 15th century.[1] Medieval philosophy, understood as a project of independent philosophical inquiry, began in Baghdad, in the middle of the 8th century,[1] and in France, in the itinerant court of Charlemagne, in the last quarter of the 8th century.[1][2] It is defined partly by the process of rediscovering the ancient culture developed in Greece and Rome during the Classical period,[1] and partly by the need to address theological problems and to integrate sacred doctrine with secular learning. The problems discussed throughout this period are the relation of faith to reason, the existence and simplicity of God, the purpose of theology and metaphysics, and the problems of knowledge, of universals, and of individuation.[4]:1 Characteristics[edit] History[edit] Early medieval Christian philosophy[edit]

Eternal oblivion Consciousness permanently ceases upon death Eternal oblivion (also referred to as non-existence or nothingness)[1][2][page needed] is the philosophical or religious concept of one's consciousness permanently ceasing upon death. This concept is often associated with religious skepticism and atheism.[3] Through a naturalist analysis of the mind (an approach adopted by many philosophers of mind and neuroscientists), it is regarded as being dependent on the brain, as shown from the various effects of brain damage.[4] In philosophy[edit] Cicero, writing three centuries later in his treatise On Old Age, in the voice of Cato the Elder, similarly discussed the prospects of death, frequently referring to the works of earlier Greek writers. Similar thoughts about death were expressed by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius in his first-century BC didactic poem De rerum natura and by the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus in his Letter to Menoeceus, in which he writes;[5][6] Legal use[edit]

Temptation More informally, temptation may be used to mean "the state of being attracted and enticed" without anything to do with moral, ethical, or ideological valuation; for example, one may say that a piece of food looks "tempting" even though eating it would result in no negative consequences. Religious usage[edit] Temptation has implications deeply rooted in Judaism and the The Old Testament, starting with the story of Eve and the original sin. In the text of the Lord's Prayer, the King James Version uses "temptation" to translate the Greek word πειρασμός peirasmos.[1] This word has nothing to do with "temptation" with moral-ethical or spiritual-eschatological overtones. Non-religious usage[edit] Temptation is usually used in a loose sense to describe actions which indicate a lack of self control. In advertising, "temptation" is a theme common to many of the marketing and advertising techniques used to make products more attractive. See also[edit] References[edit]

Divine Comedy Long Italian narrative poem by Dante Alighieri Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco The work was originally simply titled Comedìa (pronounced [komeˈdiːa]; so also in the first printed edition, published in 1472), Tuscan for "Comedy", later adjusted to the modern Italian Commedia. The adjective Divina was added by Giovanni Boccaccio, and the first edition to name the poem Divina Comedia in the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce,[19] published in 1555 by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari. Structure and story[edit] The Divine Comedy is composed of 14,233 lines that are divided into three cantiche (singular cantica) – Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso (Paradise) – each consisting of 33 cantos (Italian plural canti). The last word in each of the three cantiche is stelle ("stars"). Inferno[edit] Audio

Why Do People Believe in Hell? Admittedly, much theological ink has been spilled over the years explaining away the plain meaning of those verses. But it’s instructive that during the first half millennium of Christianity — especially in the Greek-speaking Hellenistic and Semitic East — believers in universal salvation apparently enjoyed their largest presence as a relative ratio of the faithful. Late in the fourth century, in fact, the theologian Basil the Great reported that the dominant view of hell among the believers he knew was of a limited, “purgatorial” suffering. Those were also the centuries that gave us many of the greatest Christian “universalists”: Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus the Blind, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Diodore of Tarsus and others. Of course, once the Christian Church became part of the Roman Empire’s political apparatus, the grimmest view naturally triumphed. How can we be winners, after all, if there are no losers? Not to sound too cynical.

Old Earth creationism Old Earth creationism is an umbrella term for a number of types of creationism, including gap creationism, progressive creationism, and evolutionary creationism.[1] Old Earth creationism is typically more compatible with mainstream scientific thought on the issues of physics, chemistry, geology and the age of the Earth, in comparison to young Earth creationism.[2] Types of old Earth creationism[edit] Gap creationism[edit] Gap creationism states that life was immediately and recently created on a pre-existing old Earth. "In the beginning ... the earth was formless and void." This is taken by Gap creationists to imply that the earth already existed, but had passed into decay during an earlier age of existence, and was now being "shaped anew". Progressive creationism[edit] This view of creationism allows for and accepts fluctuation within defined species but rejects transitional evolution as a viable mechanism to create a gradual ascent from unicellular organisms to advanced life.

Heaven in Christianity In Christianity, heaven is traditionally the location of the throne of God as well as the holy angels.[2][3] In traditional Christianity, it is considered to be a physical place in the afterlife. In most forms of Christianity, Heaven is also understood as the abode for the righteous dead in the afterlife, usually a temporary stage before the resurrection of the dead and the saints' return to the New Earth. Early Christianity[edit] The earliest of the Apostolic Fathers, Clement of Rome, does not mention entry into Heaven after death but instead expresses belief in the resurrection of the dead after a period of "slumber"[4] at the Second Coming.[5] A fragment from the early 2nd century of one of the lost volumes of Papias, a Christian bishop, expounds that "heaven" was separated into three distinct layers. Orthodox Christianity[edit] Eastern Orthodox cosmology[edit] Roman Catholicism[edit] by his death and Resurrection, Jesus Christ has 'opened' heaven to us. According to Pope John Paul II,

John Hick John Harwood Hick (20 January 1922 – 9 February 2012) was a philosopher of religion and theologian born in England who taught in the United States for the larger part of his career. In philosophical theology, he made contributions in the areas of theodicy, eschatology, and Christology, and in the philosophy of religion he contributed to the areas of epistemology of religion and religious pluralism.[3] Life[edit] John Hick was born on 20 January 1922 to a middle-class family in Scarborough, England. In his teens, he developed an interest in philosophy and religion, being encouraged by his uncle, who was an author and teacher at the University of Manchester. Hick initially when to Bootham School in York which is Quaker, and then pursued a law degree at the University of Hull, but, having converted to Evangelical Christianity, he decided to change his career and he enrolled at the University of Edinburgh in 1941. Career[edit] Hick was twice the subject of heresy proceedings. Pluralism[edit]

Serpent (Bible) In the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Genesis refers to the serpent who was partly responsible for the Fall of Man (Gen 3:1-20). Serpent is also used to describe sea monsters. Examples of these identifications are in the Book of Isaiah where a reference is made to a serpent-like Leviathan (Isaiah 27:1), and in the Book of Amos where a serpent resides at the bottom of the sea (Amos 9:3). The Hebrew word nahash is used to identify the serpent that appears in Genesis 3:1, in the Garden of Eden. God placed Adam in the Garden to tend it and warned Adam not to eat the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, "for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die Debate about the serpent in Eden is whether it should be viewed figuratively or as a literal animal. 20th century scholars such as W. The Book of Isaiah expounds on the description of these fiery serpents as "flying saraphs"(YLT), or flying dragons,[18] in the land of trouble and anguish (Isaiah 30:6).

Christian views on Hell Christian views on Hell In Christian theology, Hell is the place or state into which, by God's definitive judgment, unrepentant sinners pass in the general judgment, or, as some Christians believe, immediately after death (particular judgment).[1] Its character is inferred from teaching in the biblical texts, some of which, interpreted literally, have given rise to the popular idea of Hell.[1] Theologians today generally see Hell as the logical consequence of using free will to reject union with God and, because God will not force conformity, not incompatible with God's justice and mercy.[1] Different Hebrew and Greek words are translated as "Hell" in most English-language Bibles. They include: "Sheol" in the Hebrew Bible, and "Hades" in the New Testament. Jewish background[edit] In ancient Jewish belief, the dead were consigned to Sheol, a place to which all were sent indiscriminately (cf. By at least the late rabbinical period,[when?] New Testament[edit] Orthodox conceptions[edit] Sheol

End time End time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, or eschaton) is a time period described in the eschatologies of the dominant world religions, both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic. The non-Abrahamic faiths have more cyclical eschatologies regarding end time, characterized by decay, redemption and rebirth. In Hinduism, end time is foretold as when Kalki, the final incarnation of Vishnu, descends atop a white horse and brings an end to the current Kali Yuga. In Buddhism, the Buddha predicted that his teachings would be forgotten after 5,000 years, followed by turmoil. A bodhisattva named Maitreya will appear and rediscover the teaching of dharma. Since the discovery of deep time and the age of the Earth, scientific discourse about end time has centered around the ultimate fate of the universe. Linear cosmology[edit] Zoroastrianism[edit] A Manichaean battle between the righteous and wicked will be followed by the Frashokereti. Judaism[edit] Christianity[edit] Date

Tree of the knowledge of good and evil In Genesis[edit] Motif[edit] Composition[edit] In the phrase, tree of knowledge of good and evil, the tree imparts knowledge of tov wa-ra, "good and bad". The traditional translation is "good and evil", but tov wa-ra is a fixed expression denoting "everything". Religious views[edit] Judaism[edit] In Jewish tradition, the Tree of Knowledge and the eating of its fruit represents the beginning of the mixture of good and evil together. In Kabbalah, the sin of the Tree of Knowledge (called Cheit Eitz HaDa'at) brought about the great task of beirurim, sifting through the mixture of good and evil in the world to extract and liberate the sparks of holiness trapped therein.[8] Since evil has no independent existence, it depends on holiness to draw down the Divine life-force, on whose "leftovers" it then feeds and derives existence.[9] Once evil is separated from holiness through beirurim, its source of life is cut off, causing the evil to disappear. Christianity[edit] Islam[edit] Other cultures[edit]

Omniscience Omniscience /ɒmˈnɪʃəns/,[1] mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know. In particular, Hinduism and the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) believe that there is a divine being who is omniscient. An omniscient point-of-view, in writing, is to know everything that can be known about a character, including past history, thoughts, feelings, etc. In Latin, omnis means "all" and sciens means "knowing". Definitions[edit] There is a distinction between: inherent omniscience - the ability to know anything that one chooses to know and can be known.total omniscience - actually knowing everything that can be known. Controversies[edit] Omnipotence (unlimited power) is sometimes understood to also imply the capacity to know everything that will be. Nontheism often claims that the very concept of omniscience is inherently contradictory. God created knowledge[edit] Some theists[who?] Omniscience vs free will[edit] Non-theological uses[edit] See also[edit]

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