Social psychologists therefore deal with the factors that lead us to behave in a given way in the presence of others, and look at the conditions under which certain behavior/actions and feelings occur. Social psychology is concerned with the way these feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions and goals are constructed and how such psychological factors, in turn, influence our interactions with others. In addition to the split between psychology and sociology, there has been a somewhat less pronounced difference in emphasis between American social psychologists and European social psychologists. History Although there was some older treaties about social psychology such as those by Islamic philosopher Al-Farabi (Alpharabius). The discipline of social psychology, as its modern day definition, began in the United States at the dawn of the 20th century. Intrapersonal phenomena Attitudes Persuasion Social cognition Heuristics are cognitive short cuts. Research
Related: Sociology of Race and Ethnicity
HomeMicrosociologyTheory Microsociology exists both as an umbrella term for perspectives which focus on agency, such as Max Weber's theory of social action, and as a body of distinct techniques, particularly in American sociology. The term was conceived by Harold Garfinkel to inquire into the methods people use to make sense of their social world. Competing frames of reference Some have considered that face-to-face interaction can be studied in at least three distinct (if overlapping) ways: psychology; intersubjectivity; and microsociology. Erving Goffman however saw a central tension between Durkheimian approaches, and those drawn from ethology, especially in respect of interpersonal ritual; while followers of him have seen in a Durkheimian microsociology the key to the understanding of large-scale social conflict as well. Influences The famous psychiatrist, R.D. Microsociology and (humanistic) social work Research See also References Jump up ^ Neil J.
The Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom is a 2006 psychology book by Jonathan Haidt written for a general audience. In it, Haidt poses several "Great Ideas" on happiness espoused by thinkers of the past - Plato, Buddha, Jesus and others - and examines them in the light of contemporary psychological research, extracting from them any lessons that still apply to our modern lives. Central to the book are the concepts of virtue, happiness, fulfillment, and meaning. Summary of Chapters Ch.1: The divided self Haidt looks at a number of ways of dividing the self that have existed since ancient times: mind vs bodyleft brain vs. right brain: (lateralisation of brain function)old brain vs. new brain (frontal cortex)controlled vs. automatic Haidt focuses on this last division, between the conscious/reasoned processes and automatic/implicit processes. Ch.2: Changing your mind Ch.3: Reciprocity with a vengeance Ch.4: The faults of others See also
Social influenceMorton Deutsch and Harold Gerard described two psychological needs that lead humans to conform to the expectations of others. These include our need to be right (informational social influence), and our need to be liked (normative social influence). Informational influence (or social proof) is an influence to accept information from another as evidence about reality. Informational influence comes into play when people are uncertain, either because stimuli are intrinsically ambiguous or because there is social disagreement. Normative influence is an influence to conform to the positive expectations of others. In terms of Kelman's typology, normative influence leads to public compliance, whereas informational influence leads to private acceptance. Types Social Influence is a broad term that relates to many different phenomena. Kelman's varieties 1) Compliance 2) Identification 3) Internalization Conformity Minority influence Reactance
Helpful tipsGeorge Herbert MeadGeorge Herbert Mead (1863–1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. He is regarded as one of the founders of social psychology and the American sociological tradition in general. Biography Mead was born February 27, 1863 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. In autumn 1887, Mead enrolled at Harvard University, where his main interests were philosophy and psychology. In 1891 he married Helen Kingsbury Castle (1860–1929), the sister of Henry Northrup Castle (1862–1895), a friend he met at Oberlin. Despite never finishing his dissertation, Mead was able to obtain a post at the University of Michigan in 1891. No detached philosopher, he was active in Chicago's social and political affairs; among his many activities include his work for the City Club of Chicago. Writings Pragmatism and symbolic interaction Social philosophy (behaviorism)
Jonathan HaidtEducation and career Haidt was born in New York City and raised in Scarsdale, New York. He earned a BA in philosophy from Yale University in 1985, and a PhD in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1992. He then studied cultural psychology at the University of Chicago as a post-doctoral fellow. His supervisors were Jonathan Baron and Alan Fiske (at the University of Pennsylvania,) and cultural anthropologist Richard Shweder (University of Chicago). During his post-doctoral appointment, Haidt won a Fulbright fellowship to fund three months of research on morality in Orissa, India. In 1999 Haidt became active in the new field of positive psychology, studying positive moral emotions. Research Contributions Haidt’s research on morality has led to publications and theoretical advances in four primary areas: The Social Intuitionist Model Haidt’s principle line of research since graduate school has been on the nature and mechanisms of moral judgment. Criticism
What is the new sociology of Ideas ? A Discussion with Charles Camic and Neil Gross - Transeo ReviewHumanities are not so common an object of investigation for social scientists. Other disciplines (intellectual history, political science or even philosophy) tend to challenge the accounts produced by sociologists. Moreover, the sophistication of disciplines such as philosophy or economic analysis can sometimes be a barrier for sociologists working on them. Charles Camic : Although I “turned” about 10 years ago to using the expression “sociology of ideas” to describe my work, I’ve actually been doing research in this vein onward from my time in graduate school. When I was a sociology graduate student at the University of Chicago in the mid-1970s, my initial interests were social theory and the sociology of education. As I began reading the sparse literature that then made up the sociology of knowledge, however, I was quickly disabused of this expectation. Neil Gross : Any sociologist of ideas worth his salt will naturally be suspicious of the autobiographical narratives of intellectuals.
Sociology of Race and EthnicityBy Ashley Crossman Race and ethnicity are important concepts in the field of sociology and are ones that are studied a great deal. Race plays a large role in everyday human interactions and sociologists want to study how, why, and what the outcomes are of these interactions. Sociologists look at many questions related to race and ethnicity, including:What is race? What is the difference between race and ethnicity? Within sociology, the terms race, ethnicity, minority, and dominant group all have very specific and different meanings. An ethnic group is a social category of people who share a common culture, such as a common language, a common religion, or common norms, customs, practices, and history. Ethnic groups have a consciousness of their common cultural bond. Like ethnicity, race is primarily, though not exclusively, a socially constructed category. Major Sociological Theories of Race and Ethnicity Symbolic interaction theorists look at two issues in relation to race and ethnicity.