Guide to the Philosophy of Mind Guide to the Philosophy of Mind Compiled by David Chalmers Since 1997 I have been philosophy of mind editor for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. By now we have accumulated enough entries in the philosophy of mind that it's the equivalent of a pretty definitive reference work in the field. I have a certain pride in this, as I've put a lot of work into the editing of each entry, and most of the entries are superb guides to their topics. I thought it would make sense to gather all these in one place, as a useful reference for those who are especially interested in the philosophy of mind. The first list below includes the entries classified under "philosophy of mind" in the encyclopedia. SEP Philosophy of Mind entries Other relevant SEP entries
Cyberspace and Philosophy The mind-body problem has been called the greatest question in the history of human thought. It can be phrased as, "How does the physical brain give rise to the psychological mind?" This question was first widely investigated by Descartes, who intending to extend mathematical methods to all areas of human knowledge, discarded the authoritarian systems of the scholastic philosophers and began with universal doubt. Only one thing cannot be doubted: doubt itself. Therefore, the doubter must exist. Dualism was contested by Descartes's contemporary Thomas Hobbes. These two traditional theories, dualism and materialism, still dominate discussion of the mind-body problem. The connection between the mind-body problem and the future of Neuromancer may not be obvious. Cyberspace and Neuroscience.
aro Zeno's "Paradox of the Arrow" passage from Biocentrismby Robert Lanza M.D.Related Posts:The Paradox Of The Infinite CircleThe Liar ParadoxThe Barber Paradox Tags: paradoxes Posted in Time Comments It's just an exercise in logic by an ancient philosopher. Panchatantra Ancient Sanskrit text of animal fables from India The first page of oldest surviving Panchatantra text in Sanskrit An 18th-century Pancatantra manuscript page in Braj dialect of Hindi (The Talkative Turtle) The Panchatantra (IAST: Pañcatantra, Sanskrit: पञ्चतन्त्र, "Five Treatises") is an ancient Indian collection of interrelated animal fables in Sanskrit verse and prose, arranged within a frame story. The surviving work is dated to roughly 200 BCE, based on older oral tradition. The text's author is unknown, but has been attributed to Vishnu Sharma in some recensions and Vasubhaga in others, both of which may be pen names. It is classical literature in a Hindu text, and based on older oral traditions with "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine". It is "certainly the most frequently translated literary product of India", and these stories are among the most widely known in the world. It goes by many names in many cultures. Content Others
Logos Logos (UK /ˈloʊɡɒs/, /ˈlɒɡɒs/, or US /ˈloʊɡoʊs/; Greek: λόγος, from λέγω lego "I say") is an important term in philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion. Originally a word meaning "a ground", "a plea", "an opinion", "an expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "to reason" it became a technical term in philosophy, beginning with Heraclitus (ca. 535–475 BC), who used the term for a principle of order and knowledge. Ancient philosophers used the term in different ways. The sophists used the term to mean discourse, and Aristotle applied the term to refer to "reasoned discourse" or "the argument" in the field of rhetoric. The Stoic philosophers identified the term with the divine animating principle pervading the Universe. Under Hellenistic Judaism, Philo (c. 20 BC – AD 50) adopted the term into Jewish philosophy. The Gospel of John identifies the Logos, through which all things are made, as divine (theos), and further identifies Jesus as the incarnate Logos.
Why Atheists Don't Really Exist Confirmation bias is the tendency to ascribe greater significance to information which supports our pre-existing theories and lesser significance to information which contradicts those theories. We often do this subconsciously. For example you get a new car, and suddenly you notice that type of car on the road with a much greater frequency than you had noticed before. But though confirmation bias generally refers to the inclusion or exclusion of data, there are other ways we can shoehorn the obvious to make it fit within our world view. Last month in The Atlantic, Matthew Hutson wrote a fascinating article titled: “The Science of Superstition: No One Is Immune to Magical Thinking.” Actually as an article it’s really not that fascinating, but as an illustration of the mental contortions one must make to defend atheism, it is Olympic. Skeptics call this patternicity, or projecting pattern where there is none. Fr. When C.S.
Top 10 Philosophical One Liners Miscellaneous Philosophy is no more or less than the search for wisdom. It deals with all manner of problems which everyone faces in their lives, and by thought and logic attempts to solve them. Since we live in a terrifically complex universe lots of philosophy is itself, very complex. You cannot step in the same river twice. Heraclitus of Ephesus, also known as the Weeping Philosopher and Heraclitus the Obscure, has left us only a few philosophical sentences. Death need not concern us because when we exist death does not, and when death exists we do not. Epicurus and Epicureanism, has suffered for many years from a misapprehension about what his philosophy teaches. God is dead. Poor Friedrich Nietzsche has suffered from misconceptions quite as much as Epicurus. Man is the measure of all things. This is the most famous saying of Protagoras, though it is in fact, only the first portion of his statement. Kant is one of the giants of Western philosophy. I think therefore I am.
Emergence If we were pressed to give a definition of emergence, we could say that a property is emergent if it is a novel property of a system or an entity that arises when that system or entity has reached a certain level of complexity and that, even though it exists only insofar as the system or entity exists, it is distinct from the properties of the parts of the system from which it emerges. However, as will become apparent, things are not so simple because “emergence” is a term used in different ways both in science and in philosophy, and how it is to be defined is a substantive question in itself. The term “emergence” comes from the Latin verb emergo which means to arise, to rise up, to come up or to come forth. The term was coined by G. Effects are resultant if they can be calculated by the mere addition or subtraction of causes operating together, as with the weight of an object, when one can calculate its weight merely by adding the weights of the parts that make it up. Table of Contents