American Psychological Association (APA) The Cognitive Costs of Multitasking By Kendra Cherry Updated May 22, 2015. Quick Overview: Multitasking can reduce productivity by approximately 40-percent according to some researchers.Switching from one task to another makes it difficult to tune out distractions and can cause mental blocks that can slow you down. Is All That Multitasking Really Making You More Productive? Take a moment and think about all of the things you are doing right now. Perhaps you're also listening to music, texting a friend, checking your email in another browser tab, or playing a computer game. If you are doing several different things at once, then you may be what researchers refer to as a "heavy multitasker." In the past, many people believed that multitasking was a good way to increase productivity. continue reading below our video Play Video Recent research, however, has demonstrated that that switching from one task to the next takes a serious toll on productivity. What the Research on Multitasking Suggests Learn more about: References
Freud's Conscious and Unconscious Mind By Kendra Cherry Updated December 17, 2015. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud believed that behavior and personality derives from the constant and unique interaction of conflicting psychological forces that operate at three different levels of awareness: the preconscious, the conscious, and the unconscious. What do these terms mean? What exactly happens at each level of awareness? The Mind According to Freud Many of us have experienced what is commonly referred to as a Freudian slip. These misstatements are believed to reveal underlying, unconscious thoughts or feelings. James has just started a new relationship with a woman he met at school. If you were in this situation, how would you explain this mistake? The psychoanalytic view holds that there are unconscious, inner forces outside of your awareness that are directing your behavior. continue reading below our video Play Video Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalytic theory. Freud's Three Levels of Mind
Consciousness 1. History of the issue Questions about the nature of conscious awareness have likely been asked for as long as there have been humans. Neolithic burial practices appear to express spiritual beliefs and provide early evidence for at least minimally reflective thought about the nature of human consciousness (Pearson 1999, Clark and Riel-Salvatore 2001). Nonetheless, some have argued that consciousness as we know it today is a relatively recent historical development that arose sometime after the Homeric era (Jaynes 1974). Although the words “conscious” and “conscience” are used quite differently today, it is likely that the Reformation emphasis on the latter as an inner source of truth played some role in the inward turn so characteristic of the modern reflective view of self. By the beginning of the early modern era in the seventeenth century, consciousness had come full center in thinking about the mind. Locke's contemporary G.W. 2. 2.1 Creature Consciousness Sentience. Wakefulness. 3.
Consciousness Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century Thanks to recent developments in technology, consciousness has become a significant topic of research in psychology, neuropsychology and neuroscience within the past few decades. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness. The majority of experimental studies assess consciousness by asking human subjects for a verbal report of their experiences (e.g., "tell me if you notice anything when I do this"). Etymology and early history John Locke, British philosopher active in the 17th century A related word was conscientia, which primarily means moral conscience. In the dictionary Philosophy of mind The philosophy of mind has given rise to many stances regarding consciousness. Consciousness—The having of perceptions, thoughts, and feelings; awareness.
Table of Contents | in Chapter 06: Memory Psychology: An Introduction Table of Contents Next page Copyright© 2007-2011Russ Dewey Part One: From Ebbinghaus to Encoding Part Two: Different Types of Memory Part Three: Biological Perspectives on Memory Part Four: Memory Improvement Part Five: Extraordinary Memorists Overview of Chapter 6: Memory Memory feels like a dip into the past, but actually memory takes place in the present moment. Memory research is one of the oldest forms of experimental research in psychology, but it really blossomed in the 1960s and 1970s. In present-day psychology, memory is not regarded as a single process or a single system. The topic of memory is one of practical importance. How this chapter is organized The first section starts with the oldest tradition of memory research, that of Ebbinghaus. Next we examine the different types of memory documented by researchers in recent decades. Finally, we end the chapter with a look at people with fantastic memories of various types. Related topics in other chapters
Table of Contents | in Chapter 03: States of Consciousness Psychology: An Introduction Table of Contents Next page Copyright© 2007-2011Russ Dewey Part One: Consciousness Part Two: Sleep Part Three: Hypnosis Part Four: Meditation Part Five: Psychoactive Drugs Overview of Chapter 3: States of Consciousness This chapter relates in numerous ways to our ongoing integrative theme: the creative brain. Why devote a chapter to states of consciousness? Fifty years later, after the cognitive and neuroscience revolutions, the pendulum swung back the other way again. Sleep and dreaming are states of consciousness that can be very strange but are experienced by everybody. Hypnosis is another "fun" topic that alternately fascinates and annoys psychologists. How this chapter is organized The chapter begins with a brief discussion of consciousness as a research topic. The next section of the chapter deals with sleep, particularly the findings from the era known as the Golden Age of Sleep Research, such as the discovery of REM sleep and its correlation with dreaming.
Future - The enormous power of the unconscious brain If you don’t think the act of stacking and shuffling a set of cups could boggle your mind, watch the video below. In it, neuroscientist David Eagleman introduces 10-year-old Austin Naber – a world record-holding, champion cup stacker. Naber moves the cups around at a blistering pace and when Eagleman has a go at keeping up with him, the difference in skill and speed becomes immediately apparent. “He smoked me,” Eagleman admits. “But the bigger point is that when I’m doing it, it’s my first time cup stacking. Both Eagleman and Naber had their brain activity monitored via an electroencephalogram (EEG). “His brain was much more serene than mine because he had automised his behaviour,” explains Eagleman. The reason you practise sports over and over again is so you get really good at automising your action – David Eagleman It’s a question that Eagleman explored in a PBS television series that aired recently on BBC4 in the UK. Take the experience of hitting a ball with a bat.
How Did Consciousness Evolve? Ever since Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859, evolution has been the grand unifying theory of biology. Yet one of our most important biological traits, consciousness, is rarely studied in the context of evolution. Theories of consciousness come from religion, from philosophy, from cognitive science, but not so much from evolutionary biology. Maybe that’s why so few theories have been able to tackle basic questions such as: What is the adaptive value of consciousness? The Attention Schema Theory (AST), developed over the past five years, may be able to answer those questions. Even before the evolution of a central brain, nervous systems took advantage of a simple computing trick: competition. We can take a good guess when selective signal enhancement first evolved by comparing different species of animal, a common method in evolutionary biology. The arthropod eye, on the other hand, has one of the best-studied examples of selective signal enhancement.
A civil servant missing most of his brain challenges our most basic theories of consciousness — Quartz Not much is definitively proven about consciousness, the awareness of one’s existence and surroundings, other than that its somehow linked to the brain. But theories as to how, exactly, grey matter generates consciousness are challenged when a fully-conscious man is found to be missing most of his brain. And yet the man was a married father of two and a civil servant with an IQ of 75, below-average in his intelligence but not mentally disabled. Doctors believe the man’s brain slowly eroded over 30 years due to a build up of fluid in the brain’s ventricles, a condition known as “hydrocephalus.” While this may seem medically miraculous, it also poses a major challenge for cognitive psychologists, says Axel Cleeremans of the Université Libre de Bruxelles. “Any theory of consciousness has to be able to explain why a person like that, who’s missing 90% of his neurons, still exhibits normal behavior,” says Cleeremans. He believes that the brain learns to be conscious.