Acupuncture Clinical practice One type of acupuncture needle Acupuncture is the stimulation of defined, specific acupuncture points along the skin of the body using thin needles. It can be associated with the application of heat, pressure, or laser light to these same points. Classically, acupuncture is individualized and based on philosophy and intuition, and not on scientific research. In modern acupuncture, a consultation is followed by taking the pulse on both arms and inspecting the tongue. Needles Traditional and modern Japanese guiding tube needles Apart from the usual filiform needle, other needle types include three-edged needles and the Nine Ancient Needles. Japanese acupuncturists use extremely thin needles that are used superficially, sometimes without penetrating the skin, and surrounded by a guide tube (a 17th-century invention adopted in China and the West). Needling technique Insertion De-qi sensation Non-invasive needling
Sundial SSW facing, vertical declining sundial on Moot Hall, Aldeburgh, Suffolk, England. A combined analemmatic-equatorial sundial in Ann Morrison Park in Boise, Idaho, 43°36'45.5"N 116°13'27.6"W A sundial is a device that tells the time of day by the position of the Sun. In common designs such as the horizontal sundial, the sun casts a shadow from its style onto a surface marked with lines indicating the hours of the day. The style is the time-telling edge of the gnomon, often a thin rod or a sharp, straight edge. As the sun moves across the sky, the shadow-edge aligns with different hour-lines. Introduction There are different types of sundials. The shadow-casting object, known as a gnomon, may be a long thin rod, or other object with a sharp tip or a straight edge. With sundials using light to indicate time, a line of light may be formed by allowing the sun's rays through a thin slit or focusing them through a cylindrical lens. Apparent motion of the Sun 
Wikipedia entry on mental disorders in Ancient China Vitalism The synthesis of urea (and other organic substances) from inorganic compounds was counterevidence for the vitalist hypothesis that only organisms could make such compounds. Although now rejected by mainstream science, vitalism has a long history in medical philosophies: most traditional healing practices posited that disease results from some imbalance in vital forces. In the Western tradition founded by Hippocrates, these vital forces were associated with the four temperaments and humours; Eastern traditions posited an imbalance or blocking of qi (or prana). Philosophy Louis Pasteur argued that only life could catalyse fermentation. Plato's world of eternal and unchanging Forms, imperfectly represented in matter by a divine Artisan, contrasts sharply with the various mechanistic Weltanschauungen, of which atomism was, by the fourth century at least, the most prominent... Science It would be ahistorical to ridicule vitalists. Relationship to emergentism Mesmerism
Human Humans began to practice sedentary agriculture about 12,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals which allowed for the growth of civilization. Humans subsequently established various forms of government, religion, and culture around the world, unifying people within a region and leading to the development of states and empires. The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries led to the development of fuel-driven technologies and improved health, causing the human population to rise exponentially. By 2012 the global human population was estimated to be around 7 billion. Etymology and definition In common usage, the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo — anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the definition of "human" has changed with the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans. History Evolution and range Evidence from molecular biology
The Shang Dynasty Ancient China The core of what later became the unified nation of China developed in the river valleys and deltas, mainly around the Huang He (Yellow) River. Archaeological findings, especially of early bronze artifacts, show evidence of numerous ancient settlements scattered along the Huang He and along the Yangtze to the south. The northern settlements existed in a rather cold and arid climate; the southern climate was much more humid, better suited to farming rice and millet. Two important geographical factors characterize the early Chinese settlements. First, they were inland rather than coastal. The Shang Dynasty Modern Western history is usually broken up into small units called “reigns,” in which we speak of the events that take place under an individual monarch. Government Tang was the first king of the Shang dynasty. The Shang civilization resembled the feudal system that arose centuries later in Western Europe. Society Religion Chinese religion of the era had two aspects. Writing
Ancient Egyptian technology Ancient Egyptian depiction of women engaged in mechanical rope making, the first graphic evidence of the craft, shown in the two lower rows of the illustration Technology in Dynastic Egypt Significant advances in ancient Egypt during the dynastic period include astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. Their geometry was a necessary outgrowth of surveying to preserve the layout and ownership of farmland, which was flooded annually by the Nile river. Paper and writing A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, which is written and drawn on papyrus The word paper comes from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. Egyptian hieroglyphs, a phonetic writing system, served as the basis for the Phoenician alphabet from which later alphabets were derived. The city of Alexandria retained preeminence for its records and scrolls with its library. Structures and construction Buildings
Wu Xing Diagram of the interactions between the Wu Xing. The "generative" cycle is illustrated by white arrows running clockwise on the outside of the circle, while the "destructive" or "conquering" cycle is represented by red arrows inside the circle. Some of the Mawangdui Silk Texts (no later than 168 BC) also present the Wu Xing as "five virtues" or types of activities. Within Chinese medicine texts the Wu Xing are also referred to as Wu Yun (五運 wŭ yùn) or a combination of the two characters (Wu Xing-Yun) these emphasise the correspondence of five elements to five 'seasons' (four seasons plus one). The system of five phases was used for describing interactions and relationships between phenomena. The Phases The five phases are usually used to describe the state in nature: Cycles Inter-promoting (mother/son)Inter-acting (grandmother/grandson)Over-acting (kè cycle)Counter-acting (reverse kè) Generating The common memory jogs, which help to remind in what order the phases are:
Urine therapy In alternative medicine, the term urine therapy or urotherapy, (also urinotherapy or uropathy) refers to various applications of human urine for medicinal or cosmetic purposes, including drinking of one's own urine and massaging one's skin with one's own urine. While there is currently insufficient evidence for the therapeutic use of urine, many chemical components of urine have wide-scale industrial and agricultural use, such as urea and urokinase. Rome As in ancient Rome, urine was used for tooth-whitening. A famous poem by the Roman poet Catullus, criticizing a Spaniard named Egnatius, reads: Egnatius, because he has snow-white teeth, smiles all the time. The Bible Some advocates[who?] Hinduism Islam In Islam, drinking urine is forbidden and is considered "najasa" due to its toxicity. Other cultures The homeopath John Henry Clarke wrote, "…man who, for a skin affection, drank in the morning the urine he had passed the night before.
Human Cells have Electric Fields as Powerful as Lighting Bolts -A Galaxy Insight Using newly developed voltage-sensitive nanoparticles, researchers have found that the previously unknown electric fields inside of cells are as strong, or stronger, as those produced in lightning bolts. Previously, it has only been possible to measure electric fields across cell membranes, not within the main bulk of cells, so scientists didn't even know cells had an internal electric field. This discovery is a surprising twist for cell researchers. University of Michigan researchers led by chemistry professor Raoul Kopelman encapsulated voltage-sensitive dyes in polymer spheres just 30 nanometers in diameter. "They have developed a tool that allows you to look at cellular changes on a very local level," said Piotr Grodzinski, director of the National Cancer Institute Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer in Technology Review. Kopelman has developed encapsulated voltage-sensitive dyes that aren't hydrophobic and can operate anywhere in the cell, rather than just in membranes.
Han Dynasty, Han Dynasty History, History of Ancient China Han Dynaty played an important role in history of China. It contributed to the Chinese culture and civilization. After Qin was overthrew by the peasants rebellion, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu were two leaders that struggled to seize the regime position of a new dyansty. They have gone against each other and at last Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu to be the first emperor of Han dynasty. Chang’an became capital during the Han Dynasty after a short national war. Building upon the base of Qin dynasty, the new empire retained much of the Qin administrative structure but retreated a little from centralized rule by establishing vassal principalities in some areas for the sake of political convenience. Instead of using the previous harsher and crule laws and regulation against the common people. A civil service examination system also was initiated. The Han period produced China's most famous historian, Sima Qian ( 145-87 B.C.?) Technological advances also marked this period.