Peirce's Theory of Signs 1. Basic Sign Structure In one of his many definitions of a sign, Peirce writes: I define a sign as anything which is so determined by something else, called its Object, and so determines an effect upon a person, which effect I call its interpretant, that the later is thereby mediately determined by the former. (EP2, 478) What we see here is Peirce's basic claim that signs consist of three inter-related parts: a sign, an object, and an interpretant. 1.1 The Signifying Element of Signs The very first thing to note is that there are some potential terminological difficulties here. Peirce's idea that a sign does not signify in all respects and has some particular signifying element is perhaps best made clear with an example. 1.2 The Object Just as with the sign, not every characteristic of the object is relevant to signification: only certain features of an object enable a sign to signify it. The sign is the molehill, and the object of this sign is the mole. 1.3 The Interpretant 3. 3.2 Objects
Un plongement d'une surface dans R3 est une représentation où le plan tangent est continu et où il n'existe aucun ensemble d'auto-intersection Un plongement d'une surface dans R3 est une représentation où le plan tangent est continu et où il n'existe aucun ensemble d'auto-intersection. La sphère et le tore peuvent être plongés dans R3. Une immersion d'une surface dans R3 possède également un plan tangent continu, mais il y a présence d'un ensemble d'auto-intersection. Exemples : surface de Boy, bouteille de Klein. On peut toujours transformer un plongement en immersion. Prenons une sphère et amenons au contact, à l'intérieur, deux points par exemple antipodaux (des "pôles"). Mais l'inverse n'est pas automatiquement possible. Les surfaces, et plus généralement les objets géométrique : point, droite, courbe fermée, "courbe à bord" (segment ou "boule b1"), disque, etc....sont comme les objets d'une langue. Il y a des transformations qui sont de véritables opérateurs géométriques. Un objet fondamental est ce qu'on pourrait appeler le "gamma-cylindre". On commence l'opération d'étranglement : C'est la modification "C". Détail :
William James William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States, James was one of the leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced, while others have labelled him the "Father of American psychology". Along with Charles Sanders Peirce and John Dewey, he is considered to be one of the greatest figures associated with the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of the functional psychology. He also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B. Early life William James was born at the Astor House in New York City. He took up medical studies at The Harvard Medical School in 1864. Career
What is Semiotics? by Eugene Gorny When people find out that I am a specialist in semiotics and that I even give lectures in this subject at the University, they always say, "tell me, what is semiotics?" In the course of time, it became clear to me that this is the normal reaction of normal people to the word "semiotics" itself. Every time as I tried to answer the question and to explain the point of the business I do, I have found that it is not easy at all. Three definitions Perhaps, the most widespread, canonical definition of semiotics is the definition by subject: "Semiotics is a science of signs and/or sign systems". Long ago St. On the other hand, something which is usually perceived as a sign, can in some occasions be perceived (and used) as a simple thing. In brief, there exist a great number of conditions that determine where and when we consider or do not consider a certain thing as a sign (and vice versa). Therefore, semiotics is a means of considering anything as signs and sign systems.
Meta learning (computer science) Meta learning is a subfield of Machine learning where automatic learning algorithms are applied on meta-data about machine learning experiments. Although different researchers hold different views as to what the term exactly means (see below), the main goal is to use such meta-data to understand how automatic learning can become flexible in solving different kinds of learning problems, hence to improve the performance of existing learning algorithms. Flexibility is very important because each learning algorithm is based on a set of assumptions about the data, its inductive bias. This means that it will only learn well if the bias matches the data in the learning problem. By using different kinds of meta-data, like properties of the learning problem, algorithm properties (like performance measures), or patterns previously derived from the data, it is possible to select, alter or combine different learning algorithms to effectively solve a given learning problem.
George Herbert Mead George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. He is regarded as one of the founders of social psychology and the American sociological tradition in general. Biography Mead was born February 27, 1863 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. He was raised in a Protestant, middle-class family comprising his father, Hiram Mead, his mother, Elizabeth Storrs (Billings) Mead, and his sister Alice. In autumn 1887, Mead enrolled at Harvard University, where his main interests were philosophy and psychology. In 1891 he married Helen Kingsbury Castle (1860–1929), the sister of Henry Northrup Castle (1862–1895), a friend he met at Oberlin. Despite never finishing his dissertation, Mead was able to obtain a post at the University of Michigan in 1891. Writings Pragmatism and symbolic interaction Social philosophy (behaviorism)
Euphemism A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse; while others use bland, inoffensive, and often misleading terms for things the user wishes to dissimulate or downplay. Euphemisms are used for dissimulation, to refer to taboo topics (such as disability, sex, excretion, and death) in a polite way, and to mask profanity. The opposite of euphemism roughly equates to dysphemism. Euphemisms may be used to avoid words considered rude, while still conveying their meaning; words may be replaced by similar-sounding words, gentler words, or placeholders. Some euphemisms have become accepted in certain societies for uncomfortable information; for example, in many English speaking countries, a doctor is likely to say "the patient passed away" rather than "the patient died". Etymology Formation Phonetic modification Figures of speech Rhetoric
Bayes' theorem A blue neon sign, showing the simple statement of Bayes's theorem In probability theory and statistics, Bayes' theorem (alternatively Bayes' law or Bayes' rule) relates current to prior belief. It also relates current to prior evidence. When applied, the probabilities involved in Bayes' theorem may have any of a number of probability interpretations. Bayes's theorem is named after Rev. Sir Harold Jeffreys put Bayes' algorithm and Laplace's formulation on an axiomatic basis. Introduction Bayes's theorem is stated mathematically as the following simple form: For proposition A and evidence or background B, P(A), the prior probability, is the initial degree of belief in A.P(A|B), the conditional probability, is the degree of belief in A, having taken B into account.the quotient P(B|A)/P(B) represents the support B provides for A. Another form of Bayes's Theorem that is generally encountered when looking at two competing statements or hypotheses is: For an epistemological interpretation:
Hubert Dreyfus Hubert Lederer Dreyfus (born October 15, 1929) is an American philosopher and professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. Dreyfus is featured in Tao Ruspoli's film Being in the World. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001 and is a recipient of the Harbison Prize for Outstanding Teaching at UC Berkeley. Erasmus University awarded Dreyfus an honorary doctorate "for his brilliant and highly influential work in the field of artificial intelligence, and for his equally outstanding contributions to the analysis and interpretation of twentieth century continental philosophy". Background In 1965, while teaching at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dreyfus published "Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence", an attack on the work of Allen Newell and Herbert A. Dreyfus's criticism of AI Dreyfus's critique of artificial intelligence (AI) concerns what he considers to be the four primary assumptions of AI research.
Semantic change Examples Awful—Originally meant "inspiring wonder (or fear)". Used originally as a shortening for "full of awe", in contemporary usage the word usually has negative meaning.Demagogue—Originally meant "a popular leader". It is from the Greek dēmagōgós "leader of the people", from dēmos "people" + agōgós "leading, guiding". (George Chauncey, in his book Gay New York, would put this shift as early as the late 19th century among a certain "in crowd" knowledgeable of gay night life.) Types of semantic change A number of classification schemes have been suggested for semantic change. However, the categorization of Blank (1998) has gained increasing acceptance: Blank considers it problematic, though, to include amelioration and pejoration of meaning as well as strengthening and weakening of meaning. Forces triggering semantic change Blank has tried to create a complete list of motivations for semantic change. Practical studies Theoretical studies See also
Poincaré et l'intuitionnisme Un article de Caverne des 1001 nuits. Poincaré, philosophe et mathématicien français, participa au début du XXème siècle au grand débat sur l'intuitionnisme issu du débat sur les fondations des mathématiques. Depuis la fin du XIXème, Russel, mathématicien anglais, et Hilbert, mathématicien allemand, viennent de publier deux traités, respectivement Les principes des mathématiques (1903) et Les fondements de la géométrie (1899). Tous les deux veulent remettre en cause l'intuitionnisme de Kant qui stipule entre autres que le temps et l'espace nous sont donnés comme des objets synthétiques a priori. Poincaré est un fervent défenseur de l'intuitionnisme, notamment au travers du principe d'induction, que l'on nomme de nos jours « récurrence ». [modifier] Le problème de la définition Poincaré pose comme première question le problème de la définition versus l'axiome. En ce sens, le point de vue de Poincaré est éminemment kantien. [modifier] Kant vu par Poincaré [modifier] La notion d'infini ↑ Cf.
Jürgen Habermas Biography Habermas was born in Düsseldorf, Rhine Province, in 1929. He was born with a cleft palate and had corrective surgery twice during childhood. Habermas argues that his speech disability made him think differently about the importance of communication and prefer writing over the spoken word as a medium. From 1956 on, he studied philosophy and sociology under the critical theorists Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno at the Goethe University Frankfurt's Institute for Social Research, but because of a rift between the two over his dissertation—Horkheimer had made unacceptable demands for revision—as well as his own belief that the Frankfurt School had become paralyzed with political skepticism and disdain for modern culture—he finished his habilitation in political science at the University of Marburg under the Marxist Wolfgang Abendroth. Habermas then returned to his chair at Frankfurt and the directorship of the Institute for Social Research. Teacher and mentor
Semiotics Semiotics frequently is seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, Umberto Eco proposes that every cultural phenomenon may be studied as communication. Some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however. They examine areas belonging also to the life sciences – such as how organisms make predictions about, and adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world (see semiosis). In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics (including zoosemiotics). Syntactics is the branch of semiotics that deals with the formal properties of signs and symbols. More precisely, syntactics deals with the "rules that govern how words are combined to form phrases and sentences". Terminology Ferdinand de Saussure, however, founded his semiotics, which he called semiology, in the social sciences: History Formulations Branches Notes
Traces laissées sur le Web et Evaluer l’info en ligne : 2 séquences pédagogiques pour réfléchir et agir Gaëlle Sogliuzzo, professeur-documentaliste en lycée à la Cité Scolaire Beaumont (Redon, 35) poursuit son partage de séquences et expérimentations pédagogiques sur la culture de l’information et des médias élaborées pour des élèves au sein de son blog Culture de l’info et des médias en lycée. Cette enseignante propose une approche collaborative de l’éducation au numérique avec plusieurs axes de travail. Pour chaque séquence, un ensemble de documents pédagogiques en libre accès est fourni : document de préparation de séance, fiches et documents élèves, exercices et corrigés et documents de synthèse. Des dossiers complets (avec infographies, explicitations, quizz et contenus informatif) pour développer des activités dans le cadre scolaire, en formation ou en espace public numérique (EPN). Identité / présence numérique : quelles traces laissons-nous sur le web ? Séquence complète sur la notion de trace numérique, permettant de réfléchir à celles d’identité / présence numérique.