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Priming (psychology)

Priming (psychology)
Priming can occur following perceptual, semantic, or conceptual stimulus repetition. For example, if a person reads a list of words including the word table, and is later asked to complete a word starting with tab, the probability that he or she will answer table is greater than if they are not primed. Another example is if people see an incomplete sketch they are unable to identify and they are shown more of the sketch until they recognize the picture, later they will identify the sketch at an earlier stage than was possible for them the first time.[4] The terms positive and negative priming refer to when priming affects the speed of processing. Negative priming is more difficult to explain. The difference between perceptual and conceptual primes is whether items with a similar form or items with a similar meaning are primed. Perceptual priming is based on the form of the stimulus and is enhanced by the match between the early and later stimuli. Related:  TheoriesCognitive PsychologyNarratives shaping perception

Priming Explanations > Theories > Priming Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References Description Priming is providing a stimulus that influences their near-term future thoughts and actions, even though they may not seem to be connected. Priming also increases the speed at which the second, related item is recognized. In effect, priming either introduces new things or brings old thoughts close to the surface of the subconscious, thus making them more accessible and more likely to be used over less accessible (and possibly more relevant) thoughts. Priming has a limited effect as the thoughts fade back to the deeper subconscious. Conceptual priming occurs where related ideas are used to prime the response, for example 'hat' may prime for 'head'. Semantic priming occurs where the meaning created influences later thoughts. Non-associative semantic priming refers to related concepts but where one is less likely to trigger thoughts of the other, for example 'Sun' and 'Venus'. Example

Social cognitive theory Social cognitive theory (SCT), used in psychology, education, and communication, holds that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. The theory states that when people observe a model performing a behavior and the consequences of that behavior, they remember the sequence of events and use this information to guide subsequent behaviors. Observing a model can also prompt the viewer to engage in behavior they already learned.[1][2] In other words, people do not learn new behaviors solely by trying them and either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of the actions of others. Depending on whether people are rewarded or punished for their behavior and the outcome of the behavior, the observer may choose to replicate behavior modeled. History[edit] In 1941, Neal E. Overview[edit] Modeling[edit]

Our Ability To Smell Depends On Our Culture I have a sense of smell so strong it's probably rivaled only by Superman's. I can often smell things that no one else in the room can smell, or can only smell faintly when I can smell them strongly. There are a lot of upsides and downsides to it though, for example, unpleasant smells have a very strong effect on me to the point where it's difficult to converse with someone who has bad breath, or hard to be in a room where someone has farted. My wife is the same way. And yes, I call it her super power. Nice to meet you Dr. I feel like I've got an enhanced olfactory bulb, too, or maybe I just relish scents more than the average person. I'm like that too, and so is everyone in my immediate family. The last 3 generations of my family were born in the US, so I'm not sure about it being a European thing. I feel bad for you. I had an ammonia accident as a child (one of those grade school science experiments about growing crystals) that seems to have burned out those receptors.

Opponent-process theory Visual perception[edit] The opponent-process theory was first developed by Ewald Hering. He noted that there are color combinations that we never see, such as reddish-green or yellowish-blue. Opponent-process theory suggests that color perception is controlled by the activity of three opponent systems. In the theory, he postulated about three independent receptor types which all have opposing pairs: white and black, blue and yellow, and red and green. These three pairs produce combinations of colors for us through the opponent process. The colors in each pair oppose each other. According to this theory, color blindness is due to the lack of a particular chemical in the eye. Motivation and Emotion[edit] Richard Solomon developed a motivational theory based on opponent processes. Hurvich & Jameson proposed a neurological model of a general theory of neurological opponent processing in 1974. See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Solomon, R.L. (1980). Further reading[edit] ERN Grigg, MD.

Cognitive Hierarchy Theory Cognitive Hierarchy Theory (CHT) is a behavioral model originating in behavioral economics and game theory that attempts to describe human thought processes in strategic games. CHT aims to improve upon the accuracy of predictions made by standard analytic methods (including backwards induction and iterated elimination of dominated strategies), which can deviate considerably from actual experimental outcomes. Framework[edit] Like other theories, Cognitive Hierarchy Theory assumes that players in strategic games base their decisions on their predictions about the likely actions of other players. A completely non-strategic player will choose actions without regard to the actions of other players. In its basic form, CHT implies that each player believes that he or she is the most sophisticated person in the game. Some theorists, [3][2] have noted that players do not necessarily fall under the archetypes above. Example: The Keynesian beauty contest[edit] Example: The centipede game[edit]

Story, History, Story Ann: Some time ago, I got interested in why European languages so often use the same word for “story” and “history.” Every English speaker knows that having one word for two such different things — fiction and truth, respectively — is anathema. But my thinking didn’t go much farther than that, it rarely does. Audra: Of course histories are stories. Ann: Boy, does that sound exactly how I see my own stories: I’m taking the real world and assigning beginnings, middles, and ends. Audra: But “story” doesn’t necessarily mean fiction! Alex: I think the term historians usually prefer these days is not “stories” but “narratives,” which is a fancier way to get the same concept across. Ann: You know what happens to the wicked queen in the original Snow White? Narrative requires artistic intervention, it requires choices, it requires a sense of what a good beginning, middle, and end might look like. Ann: By God, that sounds like heresy. Audra: Wait, Ann, it gets worse. This is historiography.

Overjustification Effect Explanations > Theories > Overjustification Effect Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References Description This occurs where I attribute my behavior more to a conspicuous extrinsic motivator than to intrinsic reasons. This effect is less when rewards are given for performance success rather than simply completing tasks, but can still be significant. Research Greene, Sternberg and Lepper (1976) played mathematical games with schoolchildren, which the children seemed to enjoy. The explanation was that the children had decided that they were playing for the reward, not for the fun. Example I fly largely with one airline, where I do not think I get particularly good service. So what? Using it If you want someone to really buy into something, do not use big extrinsic rewards. Defending Beware of short-cuts in thinking. See also Discounting, Extrinsic Motivation, Intrinsic Motivation, Minimal Justification Principle References |awa|

Every Schema Triggers Another Schema Narrative therapy Their approach became prevalent in North America with the 1990 publication of their book, Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends,[1] followed by numerous books and articles about previously unmanageable cases of anorexia nervosa, ADHD, schizophrenia, and many other problems. In 2007 White published Maps of Narrative Practice,[2] a presentation of six kinds of key conversations. Overview[edit] Michael White 2006 By conceptualizing a non-essentialized identity, narrative practices separate persons from qualities or attributes that are taken-for-granted essentialisms within modernist and structuralist paradigms. Operationally, narrative therapy involves a process of deconstruction and "meaning making" which are achieved through questioning and collaboration with the client. Narrative therapy topics[edit] Concept[edit] Narrative therapy holds that our identities are shaped by the accounts of our lives found in our stories or narratives. Narrative approaches[edit] Common elements[edit] Method[edit]

Overjustification effect The overjustification effect occurs when an expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a task. According to self-perception theory, people pay more attention to the external reward for an activity than to the inherent enjoyment and satisfaction received from the activity itself. The overall effect of offering a reward for a previously unrewarded activity is a shift to extrinsic motivation and the undermining of pre-existing intrinsic motivation. Experimental evidence[edit] Researchers at Southern Methodist University conducted an experiment on 188 female university students in which they measured the subjects' continued interest in a cognitive task (a word game) after their initial performance under different incentives. Richard Titmuss suggested that paying for blood donations might reduce the supply of blood donors. Theories[edit] Controversy[edit] There are also differences in effect among the different age groups. Education

Cognitive Load Theory - Learning Skills From Helping People Learn Effectively It can be difficult to make progress if your working memory is overloaded. © iStockphoto/alandj Have you ever been on a course where the trainer went through his material so quickly that you barely learned a thing? In this article, we'll look at Cognitive Load Theory (CLT). How do we Process Information? Cognitive Load Theory builds upon the widely accepted model of human information processing shown in Figure 1 (this was published by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin in 1968.) It describes the process as having three main parts: sensory memory, working memory and long-term memory. Figure 1: Information Processing Model Adapted from Atkinson, R.C. and Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Every day, you are bombarded with sensory information. Information from your sensory memory passes into your working memory, where it is either processed or discarded. What is Cognitive Load Theory? Cognitive Load Theory was developed by John Sweller. 1. 2. 3. 4. Key Points

Dispensationalism As a system, dispensationalism is expounded in the writings of John Nelson Darby (1800–82) and the Plymouth Brethren movement,[1]:10 and propagated through works such as Cyrus Scofield's Scofield Reference Bible. The theology of dispensationalism consists of a distinctive eschatological end times perspective, as all dispensationalists hold to premillennialism and most hold to a pretribulation rapture. Dispensationalists believe that the nation of Israel is distinct from the Christian Church,[2]:322 and that God has yet to fulfill his promises to national Israel. These promises include the land promises, which in the future world to come result in a millennial kingdom and Third Temple where Christ, upon his return, will rule the world from Jerusalem[3] for a thousand years. Estimates of the number of people who hold Dispensationalist beliefs vary between 5 and 40 million in the United States alone.[7] [8] [9] Concepts[edit] Progressive revelation[edit] Dispensations[edit] Eschatology[edit]

Opponent-Process Theory Explanations > Theories > Opponent-Process Theory Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References Description We have pairs of emotions that act in opposing pairs, such as happiness and sadness, fear and relief, pleasure and pain. Thus activating one emotion also activates its opposite and they interact as a linked pair. To some extent, this can be used to explain drug use and other addictive behavior, as the pleasure of the high is used to suppress the pain of withdrawal. Sometimes these two conflicting emotions may be felt at the same time as the second emotion intrudes before the first emotion wanes. Research Solomon and Corbit (1974) analyzed the emotions of skydivers. Example A person buys something to cheer themselves up but later feels guilty at having spent so much. A thrill seeker goes rafting. So What? Using it To stop a person feeling one thing, stimulate the opposite emotion. Tell people good and bad news in close succession. Defending See also References