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Desalination, desalinization, and desalinisation refer to any of several processes that remove some amount of salt and other minerals from saline water. More generally, desalination may also refer to the removal of salts and minerals,[1] as in soil desalination, which also happens to be a major issue for agricultural production.[2] Salt water is desalinated to produce fresh water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One potential byproduct of desalination is salt. Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on developing cost-effective ways of providing fresh water for human use. Due to relatively high energy consumption, the costs of desalinating sea water are generally higher than the alternatives (fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation), but alternatives are not always available and rapid overdraw and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide. Related:  Unsorted urban planning

Waterpyramid Usage The WaterPyramid is used in tropical remote regions to desalinate saline water and to harvest rainwater. The technology is best used were abundant radiation of the sun and free ground space is available. Target groups Remote rural villages in desert areas, tropical regions and island ridges lacking sufficient fresh drinking water. Production On yearly basis approximately 600 m 3 of fresh drinking water is produced: 300 m 3 distillate and 300 m 3 as a result of rainwater harvesting. Technology: Unique and rewarded by the World Bank with the Development Marketplace Award 2006. Benefits of WaterPyramid: good quality drinking water made easily available 'low-tech', can be operated and maintained by local workforce provides income generation and work for local workforce to be applied in rural and remote situations low operational and maintenance costs proven technology More information is given here (pdf) and here for comprehensive pdf leaflet.

aquaphytex | Sustainable Water Treatment King Abdullah Economic City King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC, /ˈkeɪk/; Arabic: مدينة الملك عبدالله الإقتصادية‎) is a megaproject announced in 2005 by Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the then king of Saudi Arabia. §Overview[edit] With a total development area of 173 km² (66.8 sq mi), the city is located along the coast of the Red Sea, around 100 km north of Jeddah, the commercial hub of the kingdom, the city will also be approximately an hour and 20 minutes away from the holy Islamic city of Mecca and 3 hours from Medina by car and an hour away of all Middle Eastern capital cities by plane. The total cost of the city is $86 billion[citation needed] (around SR 207 billion), with the project being built by Emaar Properties. The city, along with another five economic cities, is a part of an ambitious "10x10" program to place Saudi Arabia among the world's top ten competitive investment destinations by the year 2010, planned by SAGIA. §City components[edit] §Industrial zone[edit] §Sea port[edit] §Residential areas[edit]

Multiple-effect distillation Multiple-effect distillation (MED) is a distillation process often used for sea water desalination. It consists of multiple stages or "effects". In each stage the feed water is heated by steam in tubes. The tubes can be submerged in the feed water, but more typically the feed water is sprayed on the top of a bank of horizontal tubes, and then drips from tube to tube until it is collected at the bottom of the stage. Operating principles[edit] Schematic of a multiple effect desalination plant. The plant can be seen as a sequence of closed spaces separated by tube walls, with a heat source in one end and a heat sink in the other end. Trade-offs[edit] The thinner the metal in the tubes and the thinner the layers of liquid on either side of the tube walls, the more efficient is the energy transport from space to space. The first and last stages need external heating and cooling respectively. External feed water must be supplied to the first stage. Advantages[edit] See also[edit]

Watercone The Watercone is an ingenious device that can take salty water and turn it into fresh water using only the power of the sun. The nice thing about this device is it is bone simple, uses the sun instead of fossil fuel, and is cheap to make and easy to use. The Watercone is surprisingly a cone, that you place over a pan of salty water (or over a marsh, or any damp ground) leave it out in the sun, water evaporates, the condensation trickles down the side of the cone, at the end of the day you flip it over, remove the cap at the top and drink the water. This device has the potential to really do a lot of good for a lot of people. So many people live in areas where the ground water has been polluted by salt incursion due to over pumping, or in areas that simply don’t have large fresh water sources (south pacific islands, sub-Saharan Africa, south-east Asia). They claim that on average one Watercone can produce one liter of water per-day. 1.

Namib Desert beetle The Namib Desert beetle (Stenocara gracilipes) is a species of beetle that is native to the Namib Desert of southern Africa. This is one of the most arid areas of the world, receiving only 1.4 centimetres (0.55 in) of rain per year. The beetle is able to survive by collecting water on its bumpy back surface from early morning fogs. To drink water, the S. gracilipes stands on a small ridge of sand using its long, spindly legs. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have emulated this capability by creating a textured surface that combines alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials. References[edit] Further reading[edit] Saudi Arabia's new desert megacity 19 March 2015Last updated at 21:48 ET By Sylvia Smith BBC News, Saudi Arabia The entrance to Saudi Arabia's newest city With a flourish of his hand, the uniformed security guard waves us down the private road that leads to the newest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The King Abdullah Economic City, (KAEC, pronounced "cake") is one of four new cities upon which the late monarch pinned his hopes for the future of his realm once the oil runs out. Peppered with cranes, the city - or building site to be more accurate - lies one-and-a-half hour's drive north of Jeddah between the Red Sea and scrubby desert. Its future depends on balancing the complex and evolving transport, health, education, housing and employment requirements of the city's projected two million residents. The new city will cost $100bn to complete "We're building with the 65% of the population who are under 30 in mind," he explains. These statistics are compounded by the fact that more women than men graduate from university.

Fresh Water Scarcity And Cost-Effective Desalination By Greg Borzo The scarcity of fresh water is an increasingly serious problem around the world due to growing populations and diminishing supplies of fresh water. Desalination could help alleviate these shortages, but it has traditionally been an extremely expensive process. The demand for water is so great that the worldwide desalination market is expected to reach an astonishing $87.8 billion by 2016, even though only about 1 percent of the world’s drinking water is produced by desalination. To help meet this need, the Innovation Fund, the University of Chicago’s venture philanthropic proof-of-concept fund, awarded Heinrich Jaeger, the William J. “In order for desalination to become a real solution to the growing water scarcity problem, new technologies will be required to reduce the major cost components of the process,” says Sean Sheridan, an assistant director at UChicagoTech, which administers the Innovation Fund.

Google Science Fair 2012: Powerless Desalination Namibian desert beetle Desert Beetle Inspired Young Biomimics’ 1st Place Design A prototype created by the students. Editors Note: We’re always pleased to hear stories about young biomimics. By George Groh A beetle-inspired water collector earned three Bay Area high school seniors, Kadhirvel Manickam, Bryan Wang, and Shin Hoo Lee, top honors and a $5,000 grand prize in the 2013 Clean Tech Competition, organized by Applied Materials, Inc. and the Center for Science Teaching and Learning. Beetle Inspires Irrigation System The Airdrop Irrigation system works by taking moisture from the air and delivering water to the roots of crops via sub surface irrigation. Let’s hear it for the Namibian desert beetle. An Australian engineer, Edward Linacre, won the 2011 James Dyson Award for creating a self-powered pump to be used for irrigation. Read more about the invention and watch Linacre’s talk about his idea here.

London Plan The London Plan is the statutory spatial development strategy for the Greater London area in the United Kingdom that is written by the Mayor of London and published by the Greater London Authority.[1] The regional planning document was first published in final form on 10 February 2004. In addition to minor alterations, it was substantially revised and republished in February 2008[2] and again in July 2011.[3][4] The London Plan published in July 2011 is currently in effect and has 2031 as a formal end date. As of June 2012[update] minor alterations are being made to the plan to comply with the National Planning Policy Framework and other changes in national policy. Mandate[edit] The plan replaced the previous strategic planning guidance for London issued by the Secretary of State and known as RPG3. the health of Londoners,equality of opportunity,contribution to sustainable development in the United Kingdom. Objectives[edit] The original 2004 objectives were: Policies[edit] Sub regions[edit]