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Desalination, desalinization, and desalinisation refer to any of several processes that remove some amount of salt and other minerals from saline water. More generally, desalination may also refer to the removal of salts and minerals,[1] as in soil desalination, which also happens to be a major issue for agricultural production.[2] Salt water is desalinated to produce fresh water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One potential byproduct of desalination is salt. Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on developing cost-effective ways of providing fresh water for human use. Due to relatively high energy consumption, the costs of desalinating sea water are generally higher than the alternatives (fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation), but alternatives are not always available and rapid overdraw and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide. Related:  Unsorted urban planning

aquaphytex | Sustainable Water Treatment King Abdullah Economic City King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC, /ˈkeɪk/; Arabic: مدينة الملك عبدالله الإقتصادية‎) is a megaproject announced in 2005 by Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the then king of Saudi Arabia. §Overview[edit] With a total development area of 173 km² (66.8 sq mi), the city is located along the coast of the Red Sea, around 100 km north of Jeddah, the commercial hub of the kingdom, the city will also be approximately an hour and 20 minutes away from the holy Islamic city of Mecca and 3 hours from Medina by car and an hour away of all Middle Eastern capital cities by plane. The total cost of the city is $86 billion[citation needed] (around SR 207 billion), with the project being built by Emaar Properties. The city, along with another five economic cities, is a part of an ambitious "10x10" program to place Saudi Arabia among the world's top ten competitive investment destinations by the year 2010, planned by SAGIA. §City components[edit] §Industrial zone[edit] §Sea port[edit] §Residential areas[edit]

Namib Desert beetle The Namib Desert beetle (Stenocara gracilipes) is a species of beetle that is native to the Namib Desert of southern Africa. This is one of the most arid areas of the world, receiving only 1.4 centimetres (0.55 in) of rain per year. The beetle is able to survive by collecting water on its bumpy back surface from early morning fogs. To drink water, the S. gracilipes stands on a small ridge of sand using its long, spindly legs. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have emulated this capability by creating a textured surface that combines alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic materials. References[edit] Further reading[edit] Saudi Arabia's new desert megacity 19 March 2015Last updated at 21:48 ET By Sylvia Smith BBC News, Saudi Arabia The entrance to Saudi Arabia's newest city With a flourish of his hand, the uniformed security guard waves us down the private road that leads to the newest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The King Abdullah Economic City, (KAEC, pronounced "cake") is one of four new cities upon which the late monarch pinned his hopes for the future of his realm once the oil runs out. Peppered with cranes, the city - or building site to be more accurate - lies one-and-a-half hour's drive north of Jeddah between the Red Sea and scrubby desert. Its future depends on balancing the complex and evolving transport, health, education, housing and employment requirements of the city's projected two million residents. The new city will cost $100bn to complete "We're building with the 65% of the population who are under 30 in mind," he explains. These statistics are compounded by the fact that more women than men graduate from university.

Namibian desert beetle Desert Beetle Inspired Young Biomimics’ 1st Place Design A prototype created by the students. Editors Note: We’re always pleased to hear stories about young biomimics. By George Groh A beetle-inspired water collector earned three Bay Area high school seniors, Kadhirvel Manickam, Bryan Wang, and Shin Hoo Lee, top honors and a $5,000 grand prize in the 2013 Clean Tech Competition, organized by Applied Materials, Inc. and the Center for Science Teaching and Learning. Beetle Inspires Irrigation System The Airdrop Irrigation system works by taking moisture from the air and delivering water to the roots of crops via sub surface irrigation. Let’s hear it for the Namibian desert beetle. An Australian engineer, Edward Linacre, won the 2011 James Dyson Award for creating a self-powered pump to be used for irrigation. Read more about the invention and watch Linacre’s talk about his idea here.

London Plan The London Plan is the statutory spatial development strategy for the Greater London area in the United Kingdom that is written by the Mayor of London and published by the Greater London Authority.[1] The regional planning document was first published in final form on 10 February 2004. In addition to minor alterations, it was substantially revised and republished in February 2008[2] and again in July 2011.[3][4] The London Plan published in July 2011 is currently in effect and has 2031 as a formal end date. As of June 2012[update] minor alterations are being made to the plan to comply with the National Planning Policy Framework and other changes in national policy. Mandate[edit] The plan replaced the previous strategic planning guidance for London issued by the Secretary of State and known as RPG3. the health of Londoners,equality of opportunity,contribution to sustainable development in the United Kingdom. Objectives[edit] The original 2004 objectives were: Policies[edit] Sub regions[edit]

Port Jackson The location of the first European settlement in Australia, the harbour has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. The city itself lies on the southern shore. The Parramatta River forms the harbour's western arm. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself particularly the Sydney New Year's Eve celebrations and the starting point of the Sydney to Hobart yacht race. History[edit] Sydney Cove, Port Jackson in the County of Cumberland - from a drawing made by Francis Fowkes in 1788. A Japanese Ko-hyoteki class midget submarine, believed to be Midget No. 14, is raised from Sydney Harbour on 1 June 1942. The land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of European discovery and colonisation by various tribes including the Gadigal, Cammeraygal, Eora and Wangal peoples. "...we had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security Fortifications[edit]

Finger Wharf The Finger Wharf or Woolloomooloo Wharf is a wharf in Woolloomooloo Bay, Sydney, Australia. The structure is the longest timbered-piled wharf in the world,[1] and was completed in 1915. During its working life for around 70 years it mainly handled the export of wool, but also acted as a staging point for troop deployment to the World Wars as well as a disembarking point for new migrants arriving in Australia. Today it has been redeveloped as a fashionable complex housing a hotel, restaurants and residential apartments. Description[edit] The wharf, with a length of 410 metres (1,345 ft) and width of 64 m (210 ft), is composed of two side sheds running almost the length of the jetty, connected by a covered roadway between. At the north end a carpenter's workshop used to exist, and has now been replaced by a concrete and steel apartment building detached from the main wharf building. History[edit] The Finger Wharf was an operational working wharf for much of the 20th century. Notes[edit]

Garden Island, New South Wales Garden Island is an inner-city locality of Sydney, Australia and the location of a major Royal Australian Navy (RAN) base. It is located to the north-east of the Sydney central business district and juts out into Port Jackson, immediately to the north of the suburb of Potts Point. Used for government and naval purposes since the earliest days of the colony of Sydney it was originally a completely detached island. It was joined to the Potts Point shoreline by major land reclamation work during World War II. Garden Island today forms a major part of the RAN's Fleet Base East. It includes active dockyards (including the Captain Cook Graving Dock), naval wharves and a naval heritage and museum precinct. The northern tip of Garden Island is open to the public and contains the RAN Heritage Centre museum and an outdoor heritage precinct. Geography[edit] History[edit] Garden Island before it was connected to the mainland, 1910-1928 Captain Cook Graving Dock[edit] Hammerhead Crane[edit] Dockyard[edit]

Green ban Background[edit] Green bans were first conducted in Australia in the 1970s by the New South Wales Builders Labourers Federation (BLF). Green bans were never instigated unilaterally by the BLF, all green bans were at the request of, and in support of, residents' groups. The first green ban was put in place to protect Kelly's Bush, the last remaining undeveloped bushland in the Sydney suburb of Hunters Hill. A group of local women who had already appealed to the local council, mayor, and the Premier of New South Wales, approached the BLF for help. The BLF was involved in many more green bans. One of the last bans to be removed was to prevent development of Victoria Street in the suburb of Potts Point. Although green bans have been implemented on a number of occasions since the 1970s, they have not been so prevalent, nor so comprehensive in their effect. Outcomes and impacts[edit] Local legacies : New South Wales[edit] National reforms : Australia[edit] International : influences[edit]

You can Reap the rewards of social housing | Money It is the “ethical” alternative to buy-to-let that is targeting older people looking to cash in their pension funds, and boasts a tempting 7%-a-year return. The Real Estate Annuity Plan (Reap) allows people to lend money to a social enterprise that specialises in converting derelict properties into affordable rented homes for those in need, such as families on council waiting lists. It is being offered by a Merseyside-based mutual organisation called Equfund, and is aimed at those looking for a better return than they would get from a traditional annuity. Reap may also appeal to those who would like a slice of property market action but are put off by the high costs/perceived hassle/questionable ethics of buy-to-let. It allows them to use their money in a way that benefits local communities. But it’s not risk-free. So what is Reap exactly? The loan is secured against a property – so you are effectively providing a mortgage to Equfund. Who or what is Equfund? Who is this aimed at?