background preloader

Panopticon

Panopticon
The Panopticon is a type of institutional building designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century. The concept of the design is to allow a single watchman to observe (-opticon) all (pan-) inmates of an institution without them being able to tell whether they are being watched or not. Although it is physically impossible for the single watchman to observe all cells at once, the fact that the inmates cannot know when they are being watched means that all inmates must act as though they are watched at all times, effectively controlling their own behaviour constantly. The name is also a reference to Panoptes from Greek mythology; he was a giant with a hundred eyes and thus was known to be a very effective watchman. The design consists of a circular structure with an “inspection house” at its centre, from which the manager or staff of the institution are able to watch the inmates, who are stationed around the perimeter. Michel Foucault Related:  Voices for Justice

Gordian Knot The Gordian Knot is a legend of Phrygian Gordium associated with Alexander the Great. It is often used as a metaphor for an intractable problem (disentangling an "impossible" knot) solved easily by cheating or "thinking outside the box" ("cutting the Gordian knot"): Legend[edit] At one time the Phrygians were without a king. An oracle at Telmissus (the ancient capital of Phrygia) decreed that the next man to enter the city driving an ox-cart should become their king. Several themes of myth converged on the chariot, as Robin Lane Fox remarks:[3] Midas was connected in legend with Alexander's native Macedonia, where the lowland "Gardens of Midas" still bore his name, and the Phrygian tribes were rightly remembered as having once dwelt in Macedonia. Status of the legend[edit] While sources from antiquity agree that Alexander was confronted with the challenge of the knot, the means by which he solved the problem are disputed. Interpretations[edit] Use of the phrase[edit] See also[edit]

Transcript of the Constitution of the United States - Official Text The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription Note: The following text is a transcription of the Constitution as it was inscribed by Jacob Shallus on parchment (the document on display in the Rotunda at the National Archives Museum.) Items that are hyperlinked have since been amended or superseded. The authenticated text of the Constitution can be found on the website of the Government Printing Office. We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Article. Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section. 2. Section. 3. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. G°.

Meyer Lansky Meyer Lansky (born Meyer Suchowljansky;[1] July 4, 1902 – January 15, 1983), known as the "Mob's Accountant", was a major organized crime figure who, along with his associate Charles "Lucky" Luciano, was instrumental in the development of the "National Crime Syndicate" in the United States. For decades he was thought to be one of the most powerful individuals in the country.[citation needed] Lansky developed a gambling empire which stretched across the seas. Despite all the reports, the U.S. Early life[edit] Lansky was born Meyer Suchowlansky in Grodno (then in Russian Empire, now in Belarus), to a Jewish family who experienced pogroms.[4] In 1911, he immigrated to the United States through the port of Odessa[5] with his mother and brother and joined his father, who had previously immigrated to the United States in 1909, and settled on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, New York.[6] Lansky met Bugsy Siegel when they were teenagers. Gambling operations[edit] War work[edit] The Flamingo[edit]

Francis Place Francis Place (3 November 1771, London – 1 January 1854, London) was an English social reformer. Early career and influence[edit] Born in the debtor's prison which his father oversaw near Drury Lane, Place was schooled for ten years before being apprenticed to a leather-breeches maker. At eighteen he was an independent journeyman, and in 1790 was married and moved to a house near the Strand. In 1793 he became involved in and eventually the leader of a strike of leather-breeches makers, and was refused work for several years by London's master tailors; he exploited this time by reading avidly and widely. In 1794, Place joined the London Corresponding Society, a reform club, and for three years was prominent in its work, before resigning his post as chairman of the general committee in 1797 in protest at the violent tactics and rhetoric of some group members. Energetic Radical[edit] In 1827 he entered a long period of depression after the death of his wife from cancer. Legacy[edit]

Letter from a Birmingham Jail [King, Jr.] 16 April 1963 My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in." But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham.

CHAO Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham (/ˈbɛnθəm/; 15 February [O.S. 4 February] 1748 – 6 June 1832) was a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism. Bentham became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He advocated individual and economic freedom, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalising of homosexual acts.[1] He called for the abolition of slavery, the abolition of the death penalty, and the abolition of physical punishment, including that of children.[2] He has also become known in recent years as an early advocate of animal rights.[3] Though strongly in favour of the extension of individual legal rights, he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts".[4] Life[edit] Portrait of Bentham by the studio of Thomas Frye, 1760–1762

Weed: CNN's Sanjay Gupta apologizes for anti-marijuana stance CNN’s chief medical correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta says he regrets his past stance on weed. Gupta, who previously opposed legalizing marijuana, says he’s woken up and smelled the proverbial plant life. "I apologize because I didn't look hard enough, until now. I didn't look far enough," he wrote in a CNN article. "I didn't review papers from smaller labs in other countries doing some remarkable research, and I was too dismissive of the loud chorus of legitimate patients whose symptoms improved on cannabis." Marijuana was made illegal after assistant Health Secretary Roger Egeberg wrote a letter in 1970, pointing to a "considerable void in our knowledge" about marijuana and that the U.S. should wait to legalize it until there was enough research to "resolve the issue." So marijuana was made illegal because of the lack of sound science — but, as Gupta points out, it’s hard to do research in the United States on cannabis when it’s already illegal.

The Wizard of Oz and Monarch Slave Programming | The Kassandra Project: freedom against disinformation Author: Johnny Peepers MONARCH programming is a trauma-based form of controlling human behavior without the subject’s knowledge. As a result of ritualistic sexual abuse, human and animal sacrifice participation (blood rituals), electro-shock, and other more technologically modern techniques, the mind splits off (or dissociates) into programmable personalities separate from the core. Trauma-based mind control dates back at least to the ancient Egyptians. Another way of examining this convoluted victimization of body and soul is by looking at it as a complex computer program: A file (alter) is created through trauma, repetition and reinforcement. Many MONARCH slaves are often selected from families that have engaged in multi-generational sexual and psychological abuse. The author of “The Wizard of Oz”, Frank Baum, was an ardent occultist and an initiate in the Theosophic Society. It [The Wizard of Oz] was pure inspiration….It came to me right out of the blue. See related: Like this:

William Godwin Early life and education[edit] He then acted as a minister at Ware, Stowmarket and Beaconsfield. At Stowmarket the teachings of the French philosophers were brought before him by a friend, Joseph Fawcett, who held strong republican opinions. Early writing[edit] His first published work was an anonymous Life of Lord Chatham (1783). Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Caleb Williams[edit] Godwin augmented the influence of Political Justice with the publication of a novel that proved equally popular, Things as They Are; or, The Adventures of Caleb Williams. Political writing[edit] Godwin, consistent in his theory and stubborn in his practice, practically lived in secret for 30 years because of his reputation. Interpretation of political justice[edit] By the words "political justice" the author meant "the adoption of any principle of morality and truth into the practice of a community," and the work was therefore an inquiry into the principles of society, government and morals.

Related: