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Commons

Commons
The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons can also be understood as natural resources that groups of people (communities, user groups) manage for individual and collective benefit. Characteristically, this involves a variety of informal norms and values (social practice) employed for a governance mechanism.[1] Commons can be also defined as a social practice of governing a resource not by state or market but by a community of users that self-governs the resource through institutions that it creates .[2] Definition and modern use[edit] The Digital Library of the Commons defines "commons" as "a general term for shared resources in which each stakeholder has an equal interest".[3] Types of commons[edit] Environmental resource[edit] The examples below illustrate types of environmental commons. Digital commons[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commons

Related:  EconomicsSharing economy

Logic Freaks Economics has increasingly become an intellectual game played for its own sake and not for its practical consequences for understanding the economic world. Economists have converted the subject into a sort of social mathematics in which analytical rigour is everything and practical relevance is nothing. At least three Nobel laureates have expressed their concerns. Charles Eisenstein Sacred Economics traces the history of money from ancient gift economies to modern capitalism, revealing how the money system has contributed to alienation, competition, and scarcity, destroyed community, and necessitated endless growth. Today, these trends have reached their extreme—but in the wake of their collapse, we may find great opportunity to transition to a more connected, ecological, and sustainable way of being. This book is about how the money system will have to change—and is already changing—to embody this transition. A broadly integrated synthesis of theory, policy, and practice, Sacred Economics explores avant-garde concepts of the New Economics, including negative-interest currencies, local currencies, resource-based economics, gift economies, and the restoration of the commons. The print version is available on Amazon or from the publisher directly.

South Africa - ECONOMY South Africa - The Economy South Africa TRADING ON JOHANNESBURG'S financial markets reached a new all-time high on April 26, 1994, reflecting the buoyant mood of voters of all races who were about to participate in the country's first democratic elections. As South Africa emerged from the economic stagnation and international isolation of the apartheid era, the new government and its theme of economic reconstruction received international acclaim and encouragement. At the same time, however, it faced conflicting pressures to speed economic growth, to strengthen South Africa's standing among international investors and donors, and, at the same time, to improve living conditions for the majority of citizens.

Economists sound warning over carbon tax South Africa's high dependency on fossil fuel-powered energy has earned it a place among the top 20 carbon emitting countries in the world. In this year's Budget Speech, Pravin Gordhan announced the implementation of a carbon tax for 2013-2014. A draft policy is being drawn up for public comment. Carbon pricing was the topic under panel discussion at the Mail & Guardian's Critical Thinking Forum on Tuesday, hosted by the M&G and BHP Billiton. Panellists drew a direct link between a carbon tax and rising electricity costs. As Michael Rossouw, executive director of Xstrata Alloys, argued: "We have not learnt to decouple energy growth from carbon usage".

Iceland Was Right, We Were Wrong: The IMF VANCOUVER (Silver Gold Bull) -- For approximately three years, our governments, the banking cabal, and the Corporate Media have assured us that they knew the appropriate approach for fixing the economies that they had previously crippled with their own mismanagement. We were told that the key was to stomp on the Little People with "austerity" in order to continue making full interest payments to the Bond Parasites -- at any/all costs. Following three years of this continuous, uninterrupted failure, Greece has already defaulted on 75% of its debts, and its economy is totally destroyed. The UK, Spain and Italy are all plummeting downward in suicide-spirals, where the more austerity these sadistic governments inflict upon their own people the worse their debt/deficit problems get.

What will the UK collaborative economy look like in 2025? Amid rising popularity and disruption, where is the UK collaborative economy headed? Nesta has created six possible future scenarios for the UK collaborative economy. Looking ahead to 2025, each scenario highlights some of the key trends and assumptions that are currently driving forward this space, such as micro-entrepreneurship to environmental sustainability to local economic development. By no means exhaustive or exclusive, the scenarios are intended to stimulate discussion and prompt reflection on the future of the collaborative economy – and how we can influence this future. To start the discussion, we’ve asked Tooley Street Research to consider each scenario.

Why resource-rich countries usually end up poor Photo by Walter Astrada/AFP/Getty Images. New discoveries of natural resources in several African countries—including Ghana, Uganda, Tanzania, and Mozambique—raise an important question: Will these windfalls be a blessing that brings prosperity and hope, or a political and economic curse, as has been the case in so many countries? On average, resource-rich countries have done even more poorly than countries without resources. They have grown more slowly and with greater inequality—just the opposite of what one would expect. Sharing Revolution The recent rise of the commons and the sharing economy seems to suggest a growing recognition of the fact that our health, happiness, and security depend greatly on the planet and people around us. On the Commons highlights the many ways, new and old, that people connect and collaborate to advance the common good and develop greater economic autonomy in our new e-book Sharing Revolution: The essential economics of the commons by Jessica Conrad. You can download the free e-book here.

Growth outlook bleak for SA Schussler said that, because South Africa's major trading partner, the EU, is under economic stress, some of its members have reduced their imports from this country. There was little doubt, he said, that the effects of the austerity measures Greece and Spain, among others, were enduring would soon be felt in South Africa. He said creating conditions conducive to entrepreneurship was something the government should do now. 5 Things You Never Knew About the Sharing Economy In TIME’s new cover story, Joel Stein takes readers on a wild ride through the sharing economy—renting out his car, chauffeuring people around late into the night, making dinner for strangers and even toying with the idea of doing other people’s laundry. To read the full post, please subscribe to TIME. Here are five big takeaways about why we trust strangers with our stuff, our lives and our homes. These companies are more successful than investors ever thought possibleAirbnb was rejected by almost every venture capitalist it pitched itself to.

SA weathers storm, but food prices still set to double by 2030 Traditionally the cost of staple foods has gradually inflated over time, and future cost scenarios have taken this approach. But a report released by Oxfam today has factored in the rapid changes in price that come about due to climate-related crop failures. Their most conservative scenarios see food prices doubling by 2030. Half of this increase will be down to changes in average temperatures and rainfall patterns, it said.

Inventure Microfinance banks generally give small loans to people with no credit scores, but that means "there’s no real data to answer the question, ‘What’s my basis for investing in this person?’ " says Shivani Siroya. She’s the CEO of InVenture, a certified B Corporation with an inventive solution: software that prospective borrowers willingly download onto their Android phones, which monitors and crunches 10,000 indicators of each person’s level of responsibility. For example, are the majority of someone’s calls longer than four minutes? Good: They may have stronger relationships and be a better credit risk. And this is helping Siroya make the right bets.

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