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A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto,[1] and also an 'icon', is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. Pictographs are often used in writing and graphic systems in which the characters are to a considerable extent pictorial in appearance. Pictography is a form of writing which uses representational, pictorial drawings, similarly to cuneiform and, to some extent, hieroglyphic writing, which also uses drawings as phonetic letters or determinative rhymes. In certain modern use, pictograms participate to a formal language (e.g. Hazards pictograms). Historical[edit] Early written symbols were based on pictographs (pictures which resemble what they signify) and ideograms (symbols which represent ideas). Some scientists in the field of neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology, such as Prof. Modern uses[edit] In mathematics[edit] Standardization[edit] Gallery[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit] Related:  drawing class ideas

How to Create Wet Chalk Drawings: 7 steps (with pictures) Edit Article Edited by Flickety, Jack Herrick, Krystle, Jonathon and 31 others Chalk is a versatile drawing medium that can be used on sidewalks, walls, paper and other surfaces. Ad Steps 1Assemble the chalk that you are going to use. 7Leave the chalk to dry on its own and it'll be back to normal again. Tips Try drawing on black paper - the effect is amazing.If there is a defect or imperfection in the surface you are using, try using this in your drawing.This is great for sidewalk art or even for children trying to encourage people to come to their lemonade stand! Warnings Don't press too hard, as the wet chalk is weaker than normal and can easily snap.These drawings do not wash off as easily as dry chalk drawings - wet chalk is harder to wash off because it's stickier.The chalk runs out very easily, so use all you can and keep a good supply on hand!

Alexander Marshack Archaeology career[edit] Despite lacking a PhD, Marshack became a research associate at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University in 1963 with the support of Hallam L. Movius, giving him access to state and university archaeological collections that he would not otherwise have been able to view.[1] He rose to public prominence after the publication of The Roots of Civilization in 1972, where he proposed the controversial theory that notches and lines carved on certain Upper Paleolithic bone plaques were in fact notation systems, specifically lunar calendars notating the passage of time.[2] Using microscopic analysis, Marshack showed that seemingly random or meaningless notches on bone were sometimes interpretable as structured series of numbers. Following a stroke in 2003, his health was in decline, and he died in December 2004. References[edit] Jump up ^ Times Online (2005-01-22). External links[edit]

Netflix Envelope Doodles Admit it, you've done it. You've taken a Sharpie to a Netflix envelope and doodled the heck out of it. Not just once, but a multitude of times. You've then imagined the expression of the postal worker as the envelope passed through their hands, all with a wide grin on your face. Here are some fun examples of people who publicly admit to doing just that. Above drawn by jovino. From around the web: Above by: jovino Above by: Kill Taupe Above by: {heart} Above by: Garrett Miller Above by: Hugo Seijas Above by: okat Above by: maddieb Above by: Scott Snowden Above by: Sherry Thurner Above by: Joe Justus Above by: Ryan Bucher Above by: Marsha Baker Above by: Audrey Coleman Above by: Lain 3 Above by: Saybel Guzman Above by: Jonathan Palmisano Above by: Julie Zarate We've received so much love for the Netflix post, that we've dedicated an entire mini-site to it.

Symbolic Counting Tokens from the Early Near East These are samples of the clay counters used in the Near East from about 9,000 B.C. (calibrated) to 1500 B.C. There were about 500 distinct types, although not in all times and places. Tokens start to be found at widely separated sites as of 8,000 B.C. (C-14), such as Level III of Tell Mureybet in Syria and Level E of Ganj Dareh in western Iran. Tokens were used at sites throughout the Near East, from Israel to Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran, with the exception of Central Anatolia. Regarding the cultural significance of this system, their primary researcher says, "The tokens were an entirely new medium for conveying information. Perhaps the author of this quote does not realize that the sounds of spoken language are also a system of standardized symbolic signs. Copyright © 1996 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California.

Daily Sketches from Industrial Designer, Spencer Nugent - Page 383 Prismacolor Pencil on Marker Paper Technology History -- Sumerian Calculation Greece presented us with the first physical evidence of how the ancients did math, and Rome advanced it to a hand held calculator, but if we track the concept back through Greece, we discover that the technologies Greece and Rome used, began in the Middle East as much as 9,000 years ago. Approximately 8000 BCE, Sumerians migrated from the East into the fertile regions of the Tigris-Euphrates river valleys and founded the civilization we call "Sumer." This seems to be the place where they first developed writing and attached it to the tools the Greeks and Romans used (Egyptian disclaimer). It is possible that in the prehistoric past, the Sumerians used pebbles but moved from to clay tokens. A later system made it possible for them to archive the numbers. This was not writing in the sense that it transcribed language, but could be considered proto-writing that described transactions. Using objects at hand, invent a calculator that you can use to do simple math up to 1 billion.

Materials Guide Pens For those starting out with their sketching, pens are a good way to getb etter faster. Using a pen makes you commit to the lines you are throwing down. Here are some pens that have proven to be great for a variety of different styles and lineweights. Before you read on, know that this is by no means a comprehensive list. If you’re interested in trying out some new pens, check out Basic Ballpoint Pen They all feel different, so you’re going to have to dig in, buy a few, and see what you like. Ballpoint pens are the one pen in this group with the flexibility to be applied with a varied line weight all with the same pen. Ballpoint pens tend to bleed with most alcohol based markers. there may be exceptions but I haven’t found any yet. If you’re hell bent on using ball point pens, try sketching lightly with the ballpoint pen, then applying the marker. Felt Pens/Permanent Ink Pens For Beginners, this is the kind of pen we typically recommend. Gel Ink Pens Pencils Verithin Pencils

Writing Systems A writing system as a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way. This simple explanation encompasses a large spectrum of writing systems with vastly different stylistic and structural characteristics spanning across the many regions of the globe. Writing provides a way of extending human memory by imprinting information into media less fickle than the human brain. However, many early philosophers, such as Plato, have branded writing as a detriment to the human intellect. In past centuries, scientists had used writing as one of the "markers" of civilization. Because writing is so intricate there has been many explanations concerning the origins of writing, from mythological to scientific. Writing systems differ structure, stylistically, familially, geographically, and so on. Types: Classification according to how the system works. Families: Classification according to "genetic" relations.

20 Beautiful Examples of Light Graffiti Light graffiti, also known as light painting, is a photographic technique in which exposures are made usually at night or in a darkened room by moving a hand-held light source or by moving the camera. This post features examples of beautiful and creative light graffiti. Light Painting by rafoto [link] Orbing by Marc B.B [link] Play with Light by ddqhu [link] Light Graffiti by Lightmark [link] Poseidon by Eric Staller [link] Singer by versi16 [link] Light Painting by Toby Keller [link] Botanical by Michael Bosanko [link] Max Ophuels Preis by Lichtfaktor [link] Under My Umbrella by Jacob Carter [link] Sax A Phone by Eran Hakim [link] Window Dressing by Eric Staller [link] Blinder by M R I [link] Snakes on a Pain by El Endemoniau [link] Rockstar by Simon Dehn [link] Air Fireball by Ben [link] Neon BMX by Sumthin’ Luv [link] Pac-Man Light Graffiti by robokon_gt [link] Waste Removal by The Path of Light [link] Armchair Alien by Michael Bosanko [link] For more inspiration, check out: Light Graffiti Cars

Cuneiform script Emerging in Sumer in the late 4th millennium BC (the Uruk IV period), cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller, from about 1,000 in the Early Bronze Age to about 400 in Late Bronze Age (Hittite cuneiform). The system consists of a combination of logophonetic, consonantal alphabetic and syllabic signs.[2] The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian, Eblaite, Elamite, Hittite, Luwian, Hattic, Hurrian, and Urartian languages, and it inspired the Ugaritic and Old Persian alphabets. Cuneiform writing was gradually replaced by the Phoenician alphabet during the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Between half a million and two million cuneiform tablets are estimated to have been excavated in modern times. History[edit] Proto-literate period[edit] Sumerian inscription in monumental archaic style, c. 26th century BC Decipherment[edit]

Coffee Cup Drawings Using disposable foam coffee cups as his canvas, Cheeming Boey creates beautiful drawings with a permanent Sharpie pen. Each drawing can take from hours to months to complete and, unlike regular flat art, coffee cup art circles around with no beginning or end.

Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Iraq, formerly Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1772 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets. The Code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis)[1] as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man.[2] Nearly one-half of the Code deals with matters of contract, establishing, for example, the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, establishing the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, for example, or property that is damaged while left in the care of another. History[edit] Code on clay tablet Code on diorite stele Law[edit] Figures at top of stele "fingernail" above Hammurabi's code of laws.

Drawings on Dirty Car Windows Hi folks, thanks for the comments, both positive and critical. I started out with completely “natural canvasses” from driving everyday on the long dirt road I lived on at the time. The Mona Lisa/Starry Night, Ronaldinho, American Gothic- these are all examples of that. I did have to find a way to dirty the cars up myself when I started getting requests to demonstrate for media and at events, for obvious reasons. I still prefer the natural canvas, but nowadays I mostly work on prepared canvasses, as I don’t live on a dirt road anymore, and I’m very busy. Epic of Gilgamesh The Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem from Mesopotamia, is considered the world's first truly great work of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for 'Gilgamesh'), king of Uruk. These independent stories were used as source material for a combined epic. The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version, dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few tablets of it have survived. The later "Standard" version dates from the 13th to the 10th centuries BC and bears the incipit Sha naqba īmuru ("He who Saw the Deep", in modern terms: "He who Sees the Unknown"). The first half of the story discusses Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, and Enkidu, a wild man created by the gods to stop him oppressing the people of Uruk. History[edit] Versions of the epic[edit] Standard Akkadian version[edit] (Based on Andrew George's translation)