New to User Stories?Written for the Scrum Alliance. A CSP’s perspective on user stories, requirements, and use cases Having coached traditional requirements, use cases, user stories, and agile development, I’ve fielded a lot of questions around the differences among the three major ways of specifying requirements, particularly by people migrating to user stories. To set the record straight on requirements, use cases, and user stories, I will describe each methodology and then compare the three against each other. Traditional requirements Traditional requirements are criteria to which the system or business must adhere. Good requirements have the following characteristics: Complete. Traditional requirements focus on system operation. Use Cases A use case is a series of interactions by the user (Actor) with the system and the response of the system. Use cases focus on interactions and are written in such a way as to succinctly define the user/system activities and data that define the interaction. User Stories A good user story uses the “INVEST” model: Independent. User story–writing process Conclusion
Splitting User Stories Good user stories follow Bill Wake’s INVEST model. They’re Independent, Negotiable, Valuable, Estimable, Small, and Testable. The small requirement drives us to split large stories. But the stories after splitting still have to follow the model. Many new agile teams attempt to split stories by architectural layer: one story for the UI, another for the database, etc. This may satisfy small, but it fails at independent and valuable. Over my years with agile, I’ve discovered nine patterns for splitting user stories into good, smaller stories. (Note: As with any pattern language, I didn’t invent these patterns, I’ve just observed and compiled them. How Small? How small should stories be? When you’re in a planning meeting and you hit your trigger estimate, pull out the cheat sheet at the end of this article and try a few of the patterns until you find a good split. Which Pattern to Use You’ll often find that you can split a story using several of the patterns. Pattern #1: Workflow Steps Conclusion
Why Buyer Persona Development Should Be a Team Effort High quality buyer personas enable marketing teams to create content that is compatible with the wants and needs of a business' ideal customer. They serve as a foundation for great content strategies, informing everything from blog titles to proper distribution. We know this. However, marketers aren't the only ones who should have a say in the development. While buyer personas certainly enable marketers to create targeted content, it's that targeted content that attracts high quality leads for sales to close and client services to work with. If your personas don't reflect a collaborative effort between all departments, it's going to influence everyone's ability to do their job correctly. Are you picking up what I'm putting down here? If so, we've outlined how to go about collecting the company-wide insights you need to transform your buyer personas from vague to invaluable. Client Services Helps Marketing Consolidate Interviewees Provide a Structure for The Personas Looking for more guidance?
The Easy Way to Writing Good User Stories Many development shops have opted to writing user stories over traditional feature/requirement documents; however, almost all of them struggle when writing their first batch of user stories. This is not at all uncommon, just like riding a bike, it does take a little bit of practice (but once you get it – you get it). Writing user stories is dead simple if you follow these simple steps: 1. When writing user stories, using this pattern is a for sure bullseye. As a account owner, I can check my balance online so that I can keep a daily balance 24 hours a day. Pretty easy right? As a account owner, I can check my balance online. Feel free to use slight deviations of this template using synonyms: As a [role], I want [feature] because [reason]As a [role], I can [feature]As a [role], I can [feature] so that [reason] 2. When creating new user stories, always hand write your new stories on a single side of a index card using a Sharpie marker. User stories are suppose to be short and sweet. P.S. 3.
INVEST in Good Stories (French) In XP, we think of requirements of coming in the form of user stories. It would be easy to mistake the story card for the “whole story,” but Ron Jeffries points out that stories in XP have three components: Cards (their physical medium), Conversation (the discussion surrounding them), and Confirmation (tests that verify them). A pidgin language is a simplified language, usually used for trade, that allows people who can’t communicate in their native language to nonetheless work together. But what are characteristics of a good story? I – IndependentN – NegotiableV – ValuableE – EstimableS – SmallT – Testable Independent Stories are easiest to work with if they are independent. We can’t always achieve this; once in a while we may say things like “3 points for the first report, then 1 point for each of the others.” Negotiable… and Negotiated A good story is negotiable. Valuable A story needs to be valuable. This is especially an issue when splitting stories. Estimable Small Testable
Design Thinking With Persona User stories in VS2010 MSDN Library Design Tools Development Tools and Languages Mobile and Embedded Development Online Services patterns & practices Servers and Enterprise Development Web Development This topic has not yet been rated - Rate this topic User story (Agile) Other Versions This topic has been merged with its parent, Agile process template work item types and workflow. Did you find this helpful? Tell us more... (1500 characters remaining) Thank you for your feedback Show: © 2014 Microsoft. Planning poker Planning poker, also called Scrum poker, is a consensus-based technique for estimating, mostly used to estimate effort or relative size of development goals in software development. In planning poker, members of the group make estimates by playing numbered cards face-down to the table, instead of speaking them aloud. The cards are revealed, and the estimates are then discussed. By hiding the figures in this way, the group can avoid the cognitive bias of anchoring, where the first number spoken aloud sets a precedent for subsequent estimates. The method was first defined and named by James Grenning in 2002 and later popularized by Mike Cohn in the book Agile Estimating and Planning, whose company trade marked the term. Process The reason The reason to use Planning poker is to avoid the influence of the other participants. Equipment Planning poker is based on a list of features to be delivered and several copies of a deck of numbered cards. Planning Poker card deck
The Complete Beginner's Guide to Creating Marketing Personas 4.7K Flares Filament.io 4.7K Flares × I am writing this post to Dan, Mary, Steven, and Rachel—one of whom is likely you. You see, Dan, Mary, Steven, and Rachel are personas, created with a combination of raw data and educated guesses, representing slices of this blog’s readership. Dan could be you, and Mary could be your coworker. What these sketches provide is a touchstone for creating content: When I can put a name and a background to the people reading what I write, I can hopefully meet their needs even better. The same holds for marketing and sales. The basic marketing persona template I love this description of a marketing persona from the team at Krux: With personas, businesses can be more strategic in catering to each audience, internalize the customer that they are trying to attract, and relate to them as human beings. So how many of these “human beings” do you need to create? Many of these templates include the same basic information. Name of the persona Job title Demographics P.S.
Introduction to User Stories 1. Introduction to User Stories A good way to think about a user story is that it is a reminder to have a conversation with your customer (in XP, project stakeholders are called customers), which is another way to say it's a reminder to do some just-in-time analysis. 2. As you can see in Figure 1 user stories are small, much smaller than other usage requirement artifacts such as use cases or usage scenarios. Figure 1. Important considerations for writing user stories: Stakeholders write user stories. Figure 2. 2. Figure 3. 4. There are two areas where user stories affect the planning process on agile projects: Scheduling. Figure 4. 5. As you can see in the Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) life cycle of Figure 5, there are several distinct "phases" or seasons in the life cycle (some people will refer to the agile delivery life cycle as a release rhythm). Inception. Figure 5. Figure 6. 6. During JIT analysis/model storming with stakeholders. Figure 7. 7. 8. Translations Japanese
Scrum Scrum is an iterative and incremental agile software development framework for managing product development. It defines "a flexible, holistic product development strategy where a development team works as a unit to reach a common goal", challenges assumptions of the "traditional, sequential approach" to product development, and enables teams to self-organize by encouraging physical co-location or close online collaboration of all team members, as well as daily face-to-face communication among all team members and disciplines in the project. A key principle of Scrum is its recognition that during a project the customers can change their minds about what they want and need (often called "requirements churn"), and that unpredicted challenges cannot be easily addressed in a traditional predictive or planned manner. Later, Schwaber with others founded the Scrum Alliance and created the Certified Scrum Master programs and its derivatives. Each sprint is started by a planning meeting.
La méthode des PERSONAS Quelques éléments de définition… Un PERSONA, c’est un utilisateur-type (le fameux archétype), une représentation fictive des utilisateurs cibles, qu’on peut utiliser pour fixer des priorités et guider nos décisions de conception d’interface. La méthode des PERSONAS est une technique de conception centrée Utilisateurs, initiée par Alan Cooper en 1999. Cette méthode permet d’offrir une vision commune et partagée des utilisateurs d’un service ou d’un produit, en insistant sur leurs buts, leurs attentes et leurs freins potentiels, et en proposant un format des plus engageants. La démarche … Du collaboratif AVANT TOUT… avec quelques ateliers de travail, pas mal d’entretiens, et l’épluchage de diverses sources, pour recueillir l’ensemble de faits nécessaires à la construction des PERSONAS. Une démarche en 3 temps:PREPARER – CONSTRUIRE – COMMUNIQUER ET UTILISER… 1 Préparer Le démarrage dont tout va dépendre. 2 Construire La phase la plus délicate. 3 Communiquer et Utiliser Quelques liens:
Use Cases or User Stories? Murali Krishna tells us: Failure to effectively transition to Agile development is often based on a fundamental failure to understand what a User Story is. The most important aspect of a User Story is that it's an independently *schedulable* unit of requirement (feature). The key to achieving the "independently schedulable" characteristic of a user story is that you express it in terms of how a "user" would use it. Murali mirrors what many in the Agile community believe - that user stories are the only/best way to go and points us to an article by Mike Cohn, Advantages of User Stories for Requirements where Mike defines user stories: Each user story is composed of three aspects: Written description of the story, used for planning and as a reminder Conversations about the story that serve to flesh out the details of the story Tests that convey and document details that can be used to determine when a story is complete So it seems pretty clear that user stories are superior.