3 Facts About The Little Rock Nine Neuf de Little Rock Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Manifestations des partisans de la ségrégation raciale à Little Rock en 1959, à l'écoute d'un discours du gouverneur Orval Faubus protestant, devant le Capitole, contre l'intégration de 9 élèves noirs au lycée central de la ville. En 1957, Les neuf de Little Rock étaient un groupe d'élèves afro-américains (six filles et trois garçons) inscrits à la Little Rock Central High School qui furent empêchés d'étudier par les partisans de la ségrégation raciale dont le gouverneur de l'Arkansas, Orval Faubus, provoquant l'intervention du président Eisenhower. L'histoire[modifier | modifier le code] Début septembre, c'est la rentrée scolaire et la ségrégation raciale est légalement abolie depuis 1956. Le maire de New York Robert Wagner félicitant neuf adolescents qui intègrent la Central High School de Little Rock en 1958. Lorsque les élèves noirs s'y présentent, ils sont insultés et repoussés par la garde. Voir[modifier | modifier le code]
1981 Irish hunger strike A flag commemorating the 25th anniversary of the hunger strike The 1981 Irish hunger strike was the culmination of a five-year protest during "the Troubles" by Irish republican prisoners in Northern Ireland. The protest began as the blanket protest in 1976, when the British government withdrew Special Category Status for convicted paramilitary prisoners. In 1978, after a number of attacks on prisoners leaving their cells to "slop out", the dispute escalated into the dirty protest, where prisoners refused to leave their cells to wash and covered the walls of their cells with excrement. In 1980, seven prisoners participated in the first hunger strike, which ended after 53 days. The second hunger strike took place in 1981 and was a showdown between the prisoners and the Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. Background Blanket and dirty protests First hunger strike On 27 October 1980, republican prisoners in HM Prison Maze began a hunger strike. Second hunger strike
Little Rock Nine The Little Rock Nine were the nine African-American students involved in the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School. Their entrance into the school in 1957 sparked a nationwide crisis when Arkansas governor Orval Faubus, in defiance of a federal court order, called out the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the Nine from entering. President Dwight D. Eisenhower responded by federalizing the National Guard and sending in units of the U.S. Before transferring to Central, the Nine attended segregated schools for black students in Little Rock (Pulaski County). On May 24, 1955, the Little Rock School Board adopted a plan for gradual integration, known as the Blossom Plan (also known as the Little Rock Phase Program). On September 4, 1957, the Nine attempted to enter Central but were turned away by Arkansas National Guard troops called out by the governor. The Nine remained at home for more than two weeks, trying to keep up with their schoolwork as best they could. Bates, Daisy.
Etats-Unis. La mixité en échec scolaire Les Noirs sont au sud, les Blancs au nord : aujourd’hui encore, sur une carte de Little Rock, la capitale de l’Arkansas, il est facile de distinguer les quartiers. Même Brian Schwieger, guide du musée de Central High School, consacré à la déségrégation raciale, fait le dessin à gros traits : «C’est simple, au nord de l’Interstate 230, vous avez les quartiers blancs et au sud, les Afro-Américains. En ville, on dit même que l’autoroute a été construite, dans les années 60, pour servir de frontière.» En plein cœur de Little Rock, le musée commémore la bataille qui a dû être menée en 1957 pour intégrer les premiers élèves noirs dans ce lycée public, jusqu’alors exclusivement blanc. Il avait fallu déployer l’armée fédérale pour escorter ces neufs lycéens et les protéger des agressions de leurs camarades blancs. L’année suivante, le gouverneur de l’Arkansas avait même préféré fermer tous les lycées publics de la ville plutôt que d’y accepter des Noirs. «Ambition, opportunité…»
The Blossom Plan Brave Hearts: Remembering the Little Rock Nine, 1957 Civil Rights Movement '50s Beyond religion, beyond class, beyond politics and ideology, for centuries race been the single most contentious, corrosive question in America’s national dialog. Nothing has illuminated our failings as a people as harshly as our handling of racial strife; nothing has more clearly shown us at our best and our bravest as the men and women in the great struggles of the Civil Rights Movement. For generations who have grown up in a country where blatant segregation is (technically, at least) illegal, it’s beyond bizarre to think that within living memory African-American children once needed armed soldiers to escort them safely to school. The Little Rock Nine, as the teens came to be known, were African-American students who sought to attend Little Rock Central High School in the fall of 1957. A profile of Faubus published in the next week’s issue of LIFE noted that the governor spent several days holed up in his Little Rock mansion.
Rape during the occupation of Germany Territorial changes and occupational zones of Nazi Germany after its defeat. Includes the front-line along the Elbe from which U.S. troops withdrew in July 1945 As Allied troops entered and occupied German territory during the later stages of World War II mass rapes took place both in connection with combat operations and during the subsequent occupation. In postwar Germany, especially in West Germany, the war time rape stories were used in an attempt to situate the German population on the whole as victims. This became discredited by the late 1960s and the 1970s as German leftists conducted politics focused on critical investigation of the Nazi past but older generations were often unwilling to face that past, and tended to portray themselves as victims rather than as perpetrators, particularly of the Holocaust. Therefore, the frequently reiterated claim that the war time rapes had been surrounded by decades of silence is probably not correct. Soviet Military
Civil Rights Civil Rights Digital Library The Civil Rights Digital Library includes primary sources and other educational materials from libraries, archives, museums, public broadcasters, and other sites around the country. Through a partnership based at the University of Georgia, CRDL links to video archives, online collections, and learning resources about struggle for racial equality in the 1950s and 1960s. Created Equal The four documentary films on this site--The Abolitionists, Slavery by Another Name, Freedom Riders, and The Loving Story--tell the remarkable stories of individuals who challenged the social and legal status quo, from slavery to segregation. Digital Arts Alliance, Facing History and Ourselves, and the Pearson Foundation Through this partnership, high school students integrated their classroom Facing History lessons with digital storytelling techniques to create digital videos about civil rights pioneers in Boston. King Papers Project Mighty Times: The Legacy of Rosa Parks
The Little Rock Nine | History | About A few pivotal moments enter history marked with an intensity and a vividness passing years do not diminish. One such event was the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. In 1954, the landmark Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education mandated the integration of racially segregated schools. Three years later, Central High School remained rigidly segregated. The world watched. Governor Orval Faubus had ordered the soldiers of the Arkansas National Guard mobilized. News stories, television coverage, and photographs memorializing the appalling events of that day flashed around the world. She had arrived first, and alone. She walked on, toward a bus stop, seeking a bus to take her to safety. It is impossible to look at this searing photograph without trying to comprehend what young Elizabeth Eckford might have been thinking and feeling at that time. On June 12, 1958, the awards ceremony took place in the Gertrude Lane Auditorium at the union.
Back-Up 1950 à 1970 - La ségrégation aux États-Unis a) Les afro-américains dans le système scolaire : En 1954, la NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People) remporte une grande victoire devant la Cour suprême, puisqu' elle déclare que la ségrégation scolaire va à l’encontre de la Constitution (arrêt Brown v. Topeka Board of Education). Décision confirmée par un décret de 1955 de l’administration Eisenhower : « La déségrégation scolaire devait se poursuivre aussi rapidement que possible ». Photo : Le maire de New York Robert Wagner félicitant neuf adolescents qui intègrent la Central High School de Little Rock en 1958. Cependant, afin d’éviter la déségrégation, le gouverneur Faubus demande la fermeture des écoles publiques lors d’une Assemblée d’État en août 1958 (129 000 voix favorable au refus de l’intégration raciale, 7 600 contre). Elizabeth Eckford devant le lycée de Little Rock, le 4 septembre 1957 1957 © Douglas Martin Ces propos valent aussi pour la photographie ci-dessus. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Holocaust survivor Henia Bryer: Prisoner number A26188 25 January 2013Last updated at 21:12 ET By Duncan Walker BBC News Henia Bryer had enjoyed a middle class childhood as the daughter of a factory owner The German invasion of Poland in 1939 ended the happy childhood of Henia Bryer. Ahead of Holocaust Memorial Day she tells BBC One how she was sent to four concentration camps, but survived them all. "They were wearing these black uniforms with a skull on top and they installed loud speakers all over the town spreading hate propaganda," says Henia Bryer of the German army's arrival in Radom, eight days after they crossed the border on 1 September. "Hitler's speeches went on for hours and hours... he never made any secret of what he was going to do to the Jews." At first, Bryer's family - including an older brother and a younger brother and sister - survived on the gold coins saved by her father, a shoe factory owner who continued working, but was not paid. Violence and shootings were commonplace, yet the family managed to stay together.
The Little Rock Nine Ernest Green In 1958, he became the first black student to graduate from Central High School. He graduated from Michigan State University and served as Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban Affairs under President Jimmy Carter. He currently is a managing partner and vice president of Lehman Brothers in Washington, D.C. Elizabeth Eckford The only one of the nine still living in Little Rock, Elizabeth made a career of the U.S. Jefferson Thomas He graduated from Central in 1960, following a year in which Little Rock's public high schools were ordered closed by the legislature to prevent desegregation. Dr. Following the historic year at Central, his family moved to Los Angeles where he completed high school. Carlotta Walls Lanier One of only three of the nine who eventually graduated from Central, she and Jefferson Thomas returned for their senior year in 1959. Minnijean Brown Trickey Gloria Ray Karlmark Thelma Mothershed-Wair She graduated from college, then made a career of teaching.