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Pointer Basics

Pointer Basics
This document introduces the basics of pointers as they work in several computer languages -- C, C++, Java, and Pascal. This document is the companion document for the Pointer Fun with Binky digital video, or it may be used by itself. This is document 106 in the Stanford CS Education Library. Section 1 -- Pointer Rules One of the nice things about pointers is that the rules which govern how they work are pretty simple. 1) Pointers and Pointees A pointer stores a reference to something. The above drawing shows a pointer named x pointing to a pointee which is storing the value 42. Allocating a pointer and allocating a pointee for it to point to are two separate steps. 2) Dereferencing The dereference operation starts at the pointer and follows its arrow over to access its pointee. The dereference operation on a pointer only works if the pointer has a pointee -- the pointee must be allocated and the pointer must be set to point to it. 3) Pointer Assignment Section 3 -- Study Questions Related:  general knowledge

Processing.org Autotune.NET | Coding4Fun Articles We've all cringed as a hopelessly out of tune contestant appears on the latest episode of “American Idol.” Occasionally, there's a contestant who manages to be pitch perfect all the way through—right until they flub the final note. And in the cutthroat world of televised auditions, sing one slightly flat note and you're out. So what takes care of a bad-pitch day? Autotune—an effect that corrects the pitch of your voice so you'll never again sing out of tune. And now, with the power of modern microprocessors, autotune is possible in real-time, allowing singers to benefit from its almost magical powers during live concerts. The company most famous for its autotune effect is Antares. Here is a nerdy example of what Autotune can do. How does Autotune work? An autotune effect has two parts. The second stage is pitch shifting, or “correcting” a given note. Creating a .NET Autotune Algorithm For this project, we will be creating an autotune effect for .NET. Porting C++ to C# c#: VB.Net: VB.Net

Low Level Bit Hacks You Absolutely Must Know I decided to write an article about a thing that is second nature to embedded systems programmers - low level bit hacks. Bit hacks are ingenious little programming tricks that manipulate integers in a smart and efficient manner. Instead of performing some operation (such as counting the 1 bits in an integer) by looping over individual bits, these programming nuggets do the same with one or two carefully chosen bitwise operations. To get things going I'll assume that you know what the two's complement binary representation of an integer is and also that you know all the the bitwise operations. I'll use the following notation for bitwise operations in the article: & - bitwise and | - bitwise or ^ - bitwise xor ~ - bitwise not << - bitwise shift left >> - bitwise shift right The numbers in the article are 8 bit signed integers (though the operations work on arbitrary length signed integers) that are represented as two's complement and they are usually named 'x'. Here we go. Bit Hack #1. 1. 2.

Free Programming and Computer Science Books Programming Methodology - Download free content from Stanford Hallmarks of a Great Developer - Test Guide If you ask me, I'll tell you a great developer Plans before coding A great developer takes the time to plan an approach before designing or coding. A great developer knows that the time required to do so will be more than paid back by the time saved by getting it more right the first time. A great developer plans all scales of work, from envisioning multiple versions of a product to writing or modifying a small method. Always knows why A great developer always knows exactly why they wrote a particular line of code, and why they wrote it the way they did. Writes situation-appropriate code Any developer can write code. Deviates where and when necessary A great developer not only knows the canonical implementation but understands it is the canonical implementation. Knows when not to change code A great developer knows that changing code is sometimes worse than fixing it. Approaches debugging scientifically A great developer knows that debugging is a science not an art and approaches it as such.

Contributions to Information Technology Regular-Expressions.info - Regex Tutorial, Examples and Reference - Regexp Patterns Optimizing C and C++ Code Embedded software often runs on processors with limited computation power, thus optimizing the code becomes a necessity. In this article we will explore the following optimization techniques for C and C++ code developed for Real-time and Embedded Systems. Many techniques discussed here have roots in the material we covered in the articles dealing with C to Assembly translation. A good understanding of the following articles will help: Premature optimization is the root of all evil Donald Knuth wrote, "Programmers waste enormous amounts of time thinking about, or worrying about, the speed of noncritical parts of their programs, and these attempts at efficiency actually have a strong negative impact when debugging and maintenance are considered. In general, correctness and readability considerations trump code performance issues for most of your code. Adjust structure sizes to power of two Place case labels in narrow range Place frequent case labels first Splitting a switch statement

Scripting Languages: PHP, Perl, Python, Ruby - Hyperpolyglot a side-by-side reference sheet sheet one: version | grammar and execution | variables and expressions | arithmetic and logic | strings | regexes | dates and time | arrays | dictionaries | functions | execution control | exceptions | threads sheet two: streams | asynchronous events | files | file formats | directories | processes and environment | option parsing | libraries and namespaces | objects | inheritance and polymorphism | reflection | net and web | gui | databases | unit tests | logging | debugging sheet two: streams | asynchronous events | files | directories | processes and environment | option parsing | libraries and namespaces | objects | inheritance and polymorphism | reflection | net and web | gui | databases | unit tests | logging | debugging version used The versions used for testing code in the reference sheet. show version How to get the version. php: The function phpversion() will return the version number as a string. python: import platform platform.python_version() ruby: <? pad

Free Books A lot of people keep asking about a good list of programming books. Hence, we are building this list to save your time and to spread the knowledge. Some of these books will definitely help us to evolve our coding skills and thought processes for developing better solutions. Meta-List Graphics Programming Language Agnostic: NerdDinner Walkthrough Assembly Language: Bash Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide See .NET below Django Djangobook.com Emacs The Emacs manual Thanks Emacser (October 17, 2010) Forth Git Haskell Dive Into HTML5 Java JavaScript Linux Advanced Linux Programming Lisp Lua Programming In Lua (for v5 but still largely relevant) Maven Mercurial NoSQL CouchDB: The Definitive Guide Objective-C The Objective-C Programming Language Parrot / Perl 6 Perl 6 (Work in progress) Perl PowerShell Mastering PowerShell Prolog PostgreSQL Practical PostgreSQL Python Learn REBOL Thanks Nick (October 19, 2010) Ruby Scala Scheme The Scheme Programming Language (Edition 4) Smalltalk Subversion SQL (Implementation agnostic) Symfony Vim

Great Works in Programming Languages In September, 2004, I posted a query to the Types list asking people to name the five most important papers ever written in the area of programming languages. This page collects the responses I received. (A few are missing because I am still tracking down bibliographic information.) Many thanks to Frank Atanassow, David Benson, Nick Benton, Karl Crary, Olivier Danvy, Mariangiola Dezani, Dan Friedman, Alwyn Goodloe, Pieter Hartel, Michael Hicks, Robert Irwin, Luis Lamb, Rod Moten, Rishiyur Nikhil, Tobias Nipkow, Jens Palsberg, and John Reynolds for contributing. Additional suggestions are welcome. The greatest of the great (mentioned by many people): C. Peter J. Robin Milner. Gordon Plotkin. John C. Pretty great works (mentioned by multiple people): Luca Cardelli. Luis Damas and Robin Milner. Edsger W. Edsger W. William A. Robert Kowalski. Peter J. John McCarthy. Eugenio Moggi. Greg Morrisett, David Walker, Karl Crary, and Neal Glew. George C. Gordon D. Gordon D. Jr. C. Alonzo Church. O.

6 Books Every Programmer Should Own I’ve seen many lists about the best programming books and I am sure there are a lot of books that are specific to a programming knowledge or technology – that I have not included in my list. The books I have chosen are those that are meant to inspire, increase productivity and improve your programming design skills. Note: This list has no particular order. Code Complete 2 Steve McConnell The main focus of this book to help you improve your programming design skills. The Pragmatic Programmer: From Journeyman to Master Andrew Hunt and David Thomas This book focuses on the best practices of programming (i.e. what you should and should not do). Pragmatic Thinking and Learning: Refactor Your Wetware Andy Hunt From the author of The Pragmatic Programmer, this book takes one-step back from programming and focuses on your everyday thinking and problem solving skills. The Productive Programmer Neal Ford and David Bock Algorithms in a Nutshell George T Heineman, Gary Pollice and Stanley Selkow Thomas H.

Advanced Programming Languages Introduction Research Syntax Semantics Static Semantics ( Type Theory ) Dynamic Semantics Semantic Related Developments Abstract Interpretation Program Transformation Decompilation Partial Evaluation Pragmatics ( Software Patterns , Generic Programming , Visual Programming , Persistence , Reflectiveness , Hyperprogramming) Semiotics Implementation Techniques: Garbage collection , Abstract Machines Some Conferences (not updated) People and Groups Teaching Introduction to Programming Languages Selecting First Programming Language Courses about Programming Languages Courses about Foundations of Programming Languages Courses about Language Processors Paradigms Comparing Programming Languages Functional Programming ( Haskell, ML) Logic Programming (Prolog) Object Oriented Programming (Java, C++, Smalltalk, ...) Cross Paradigms : Logic-Functional , Object Oriented-Functional , Object Oriented-Logic My List of Programming Languages Selected Bibliography Selected Papers Selected Books Acknowledgments Backus Naur Form (BNF) C.

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