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Commentary on Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations

Commentary on Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations
Shawver Commentary: This commentary in the pages of this website is not meant to replace your reading of Wittgenstein in the original. For that, of course, you will need to acquire the book. This commentary is meant to give you a taste of Wittgentein, or, if you are really ready, to help you get started. The problem is that while Wittgenstein's writing style is quite beautiful, almost poetic, it is so unusual, that all of us, it seems, need a little help in the beginning. One of the most difficult or misleading aspects of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations is the way in which he uses multiple voices to converse with himself. The Philosophical Investigations is written in aphorisms, short numbered passages that are loosely tied together in terms of theme. It is useful to think of there being two additional voices. Then, there is a third voice in which Wittgenstein makes an incisive point in the face of the tradition and aporia. So, the basic format of many of the aphorisms is:

Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.[4] From 1939–1947, Wittgenstein taught at the University of Cambridge.[5] During his lifetime he published just one slim book, the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921), one article, one book review and a children's dictionary.[6] His voluminous manuscripts were edited and published posthumously. Philosophical Investigations appeared as a book in 1953 and by the end of the century it was considered an important modern classic.[7] Philosopher Bertrand Russell described Wittgenstein as "the most perfect example I have ever known of genius as traditionally conceived; passionate, profound, intense, and dominating".[8] Born in Vienna into one of Europe's richest families, he inherited a large fortune from his father in 1913. Background[edit] The Wittgensteins[edit]

Wittgenstein : Language Games This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 License In his later work Wittgenstein developed the idea that the job of philosophy was to clear up the conceptual confusions that arose through our unexamined use of language. Dissatisfied with the traditional expressionist and reflective approaches to language he sought a new model which would allow greater flexibility. Central to this was the concept of rule governed activity or 'language game'. Wittgenstein introduces the concept of 'language games' because of the analogy between using language and playing a game according to certain rules. We can easily imagine people amusing themselves in a field by playing with a ball so as to start various existing games, but playing many without finishing them and in between throwing the ball aimlessly into the air, chasing one another with the ball and bombarding one another for a joke and so on. For how is the concept of game bounded?

Martha Nussbaum | University of Chicago Law School Martha Nussbaum received her BA from NYU and her MA and PhD from Harvard. She has taught at Harvard, Brown, and Oxford Universities. From 1986 to 1993, Ms. Nussbaum was a research advisor at the World Institute for Development Economics Research, Helsinki, a part of the United Nations University. She has chaired the American Philosophical Association’s Committee on International Cooperation, the Committee on the Status of Women, and the Committee for Public Philosophy. In 1999-2000 she was one of the three Presidents of the Association, delivering the Presidential Address in the Central Division. Professor Nussbaum is the Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics, appointed in the Law School and Philosophy Department. Education: BA, 1969, New York University; MA, 1971, PhD, 1975, Harvard University

On Certainty On Certainty (German: Über Gewißheit) is a philosophical book composed from the notes written by Ludwig Wittgenstein just prior to his death. Some of the notes were left at the home of G. E. M. Anscombe, who later compiled the notes into a book. The book's concerns are largely epistemological, its main theme being that there are some things which must be exempt from doubt in order for human practices to be possible (i.e. Another important point is his claim that all doubt is embedded into underlying beliefs and therefore that the most radical forms of doubt must be rejected since they form a contradiction within the system that expressed them. See also[edit] External links[edit] On Certainty - translation by Denis Paul and G.

Apprendre à questionner? Quand Socrate peut encore être utile! Pour Bruno Devauchelle, une appropriation critique des outils numériques passe aussi beaucoup par la pratique, et pas uniquement le théorie. Une nécessaire dialectique qui passe par une revalorisation des usages non "nobles" du point de vue de l'école académique. Les débats autour des compétences informationnelles des jeunes, leurs habiletés, leur naïveté, leur absence de sens critique sont entrés désormais dans le champ de la banalité. Ils acquièrent des connaissances « futiles » et pas des connaissances « utiles », déclarait un orateur lors de la conclusion du séminaire sur le manuel numérique organisé par le ministère de l’Éducation les 20 et 21 janvier à l’ENS de Lyon. Ils ne maîtrisent pas réellement l’ordinateur disent les autres enseignants, il leur faut des cours d’informatique disent encore d’autres, fiers d’annoncer qu’ils ont obtenu une option informatique en terminale et que l’informatique entre à nouveau dans l’enseignement. À suivre et à débattre…

Truth table Practically, a truth table is composed of one column for each input variable (for example, A and B), and one final column for all of the possible results of the logical operation that the table is meant to represent (for example, A XOR B). Each row of the truth table therefore contains one possible configuration of the input variables (for instance, A=true B=false), and the result of the operation for those values. See the examples below for further clarification. Ludwig Wittgenstein is often credited with their invention in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.[1] Unary operations[edit] Logical identity[edit] Logical identity is an operation on one logical value, typically the value of a proposition, that produces a value of true if its operand is true and a value of false if its operand is false. The truth table for the logical identity operator is as follows: Logical negation[edit] The truth table for NOT p (also written as ¬p, Np, Fpq, or ~p) is as follows: Binary operations[edit] Key:

SCHOPENHAUERS 38 STRATAGEMS, OR 38 WAYS TO WIN AN ARGUMENT - StumbleUpon Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), was a brilliant German philosopher. These 38 Stratagems are excerpts from "The Art of Controversy", first translated into English and published in 1896. Carry your opponent's proposition beyond its natural limits; exaggerate it. The more general your opponent's statement becomes, the more objections you can find against it. The more restricted and narrow his or her propositions remain, the easier they are to defend by him or her. Use different meanings of your opponent's words to refute his or her argument. (abstracted from the book:Numerical Lists You Never Knew or Once Knew and Probably Forget, by: John Boswell and Dan Starer)

Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (/kænt/;[1] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.[2] Kant's major work, the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781),[3] aimed to explain the relationship between reason and human experience. With this project, he hoped to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant argued that our experiences are structured by necessary features of our minds. Kant aimed to resolve disputes between empirical and rationalist approaches. Biography[edit] Young Kant was a solid, albeit unspectacular, student. Young scholar[edit] Early work[edit]

Thoreau (Henry David) Les proverbes ressemblent aux papillons: on en attrape quelques-uns, les autres s'envolent... W. Wander Des proverbes et citations à profusion. Notre base de données est continuellement alimentée par de nouveaux ajouts. Les citations peuvent aussi être drôles. Partez à la découverte du contenu de notre site en utilisant le moteur de recherche par mots-clés ou auteurs (en haut à droite de l'écran), ou en suivant simplement l'un ou l'autre de ces liens: Proverbes par thèmes Citations par thèmes Citations par auteurs Citations humoristiques Autres maximes... Quelques définitions, selon Wikipedia: Le dicton constate plutôt un fait, par exemple: "Noël au balcon, Pâques au tison". L'aphorisme résume une théorie, tire une conclusion de faits observés, par exemple: "Chat échaudé craint l'eau froide", "La vie est courte, l'art difficile" et "Tel père, tel fils". L'adage exprime plutôt un conseil juridique ou pratique, par exemple: "Qui veut voyager loin ménage sa monture".

Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagoreβ[›] (Bengali pronunciation: [rəˈbindrəˈnɑt ˈtɑɡɔr] ( )), also written Rabīndranātha Thākura (Bengali: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর; pronounced: [rəˈbindrəˈnɑtə ˈtɑkʊrə]),[2] (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941),γ[›] sobriquet Gurudev,δ[›] was a Bengali polymath who reshaped his region's literature and music. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. A Pirali Brahmin from Calcutta, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. Early life: 1861–1878 The youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore was born in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta, India to parents Debendranath Tagore (1817–1905) and Sarada Devi (1830–1875).ε[›] The Tagore family came into prominence during the Bengal Renaissance that started during the age of Hussein Shah (1493–1519). "Rabi" was raised mostly by servants; his mother had died in his early childhood and his father travelled widely. Germany, 1931.