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The degree of competition, role of intervention and regulation, and scope of state ownership varies across different models of capitalism.[5] Economists, political economists, and historians have taken different perspectives in their analysis of capitalism and recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire capitalism, welfare capitalism, crony capitalism and state capitalism; each highlighting varying degrees of dependency on markets, public ownership, and inclusion of social policies. The extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, is a matter of politics and policy. Many states have what are termed capitalist mixed economies, referring to a mix between planned and market-driven elements.[6] Capitalism has existed under many forms of government, in many different times, places, and cultures.[7] Following the demise of feudalism, capitalism became the dominant economic system in the Western world. Etymology[edit]

Anglo-Saxon economy The Anglo-Saxon model or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is practiced in English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia[1] and Ireland [2]) is a capitalist model that emerged in the 1970s[citation needed], based on the Chicago school of economics[citation needed]. However, its origins date to the 18th century in the United Kingdom under the ideas of the classical economist Adam Smith. Disagreements over meaning[edit] Proponents of the term "Anglo-Saxon economy" argue that the economies of these countries currently are so closely related in their liberalist and free market orientation that they can be regarded as sharing a specific macroeconomic model. However, those who disagree with the use of the term claim that the economies of the these countries differ as much from each other as they do from the "welfare capitalist" economies of northern and continental Europe. See also[edit] References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

William Shatner Shatner has also worked as a musician; an author; screenwriter and director; celebrity pitchman; and a passionate owner, trader, breeder, rider, and aficionado of horses. Early life[edit] Shatner was born in the Notre-Dame-de-Grâce neighbourhood of Montréal, Québec, Canada, to a Conservative Jewish household.[3] His parents are Anne (née Garmaise) and Joseph Shatner, a clothing manufacturer.[4][5] He has two sisters, Joy and Farla.[6] His paternal grandfather, Wolf Schattner, anglicized the family name to "Shatner".[7] All of Shatner's four grandparents were Jewish immigrants (from Austria-Hungary, Ukraine, and Lithuania).[8][9] Acting career[edit] Early stage, film, and television work[edit] Shatner publicity photo, 1958 In 1954, he was cast as Ranger Bob on The Canadian Howdy Doody Show.[18] Shatner was an understudy to Christopher Plummer; the two would later appear as adversaries in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. Star Trek[edit] Shatner as Capt. 1970s[edit] Kirk returns and T.

Kapitalismus Tento článek není dostatečně ozdrojován a může tedy obsahovat informace, které je třeba ověřit. Jste-li s popisovaným předmětem seznámeni, pomozte doložit uvedená tvrzení doplněním referencí na věrohodné zdroje. Stát si většinou ponechává možnost takový ekonomický systém regulovat zákony, např. zákoníkem práce či obchodním zákoníkem. Anarchokapitalismus je pak název pro systém kapitalismu bez přítomnosti jakékoli státní regulace. Ekonomiky takových států, kde stát zasahuje do ekonomiky, jsou smíšené; tržní principy fungují v určitých oblastech, v jiných však vládne monopol či monopson státu. Historický vývoj kapitalismu[editovat | editovat zdroj] Americká burza NYSE, rok 1963. Kapitalistické vztahy v hospodářství se v Evropě objevují již od 16. století, kdy začaly pomalu vytlačovat vztahy feudální. Definice[editovat | editovat zdroj] Will Hutton a Anthony Giddens identifikují tři základní charakteristiky kapitalismu: Kritika kapitalismu a jeho alternativy[editovat | editovat zdroj]

Free market For economic systems coordinated by either free markets or regulated markets, see Market economy. A free market is a market system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between sellers and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority. A free market contrasts with a controlled market or regulated market, in which government intervenes in supply and demand through non-market methods such as laws creating barriers to market entry or directly setting prices. A free market economy is a market-based economy where prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without intervention by government policy, and it typically entails support for highly competitive markets and private ownership of productive enterprises. Economic systems[edit] Laissez-faire economics[edit] Notes[edit]

Text - H.R.4 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 Calendar No. 401 To reauthorize programs of the Federal Aviation Administration, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. (a) Short title. (b) Table of contents. Sec. 1. Except as otherwise expressly provided, this Act and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act. SEC. 101. (a) Authorization. “(1) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; “(2) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2019; “(3) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2020; “(4) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2021; “(5) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2022; and “(6) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2023.”. (b) Obligation authority. SEC. 102. (a) Authorization of appropriations from Airport and Airway Trust Fund. “(1) $3,330,000,000 for fiscal year 2018. “(2) $3,398,000,000 for fiscal year 2019. “(3) $3,469,000,000 for fiscal year 2020. “(4) $3,547,000,000 for fiscal year 2021. (b) Authorized expenditures. SEC. 103.

Pope finds a new enemy - capitalism Pope Francis's attack on some of the values of capitalism has reignited a long-running debate about whether the free market is compatible with Christianity. The recently elected Pope continued his revitalization of the Church with an outspoken statement against the "new tyranny" of "unfettered capitalism." (Read more: Pope Francis on capitalism) "Some people continue to defend trickle-down theories which assume that economic growth,encouraged by a free market, will inevitably succeed in bringing about greater justice and inclusiveness in the world,"he wrote, in a direct rebuttal of the theory espoused by free-market thinkers that wealth eventually benefits the whole of society. "This opinion, which has never been confirmed by the facts, expresses a crude and naive trust in the goodness of those wielding economic power and in the sacralised workings of the prevailing economic system." In essence, no to Gordon Gekko, yes to Bill Gates. (Read more: Vatican opens its books)

Market Capitalism, State-Style Ying Ma on The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? by Ian Bremmer. Ian Bremmer. The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? Portfolio. 240 Pages. $26.95. Ian bremmer believes that the free market is worth defending. That threat is state capitalism, and around the world it appears to be the new fad. The governments may be different, but the underlying logic is the same. State presence in the economy, however, does not automatically make a country state capitalist. Unfortunately for market capitalism, the great crash of 2008 has greatly burnished state capitalism’s credentials. Nonetheless, state capitalism is not the way to go, according to The End of the Free Market. Since the end of the Cold War, one authoritarian country after another — from Asia to the Middle East, from Russia to Latin America — has embraced capitalism. Of course, no country can rival China as the granddaddy of state capitalism today.

Complexities: Women in Mathematics by Bettye Anne Case | 9780691114620 | Hardcover Complexities Women in Mathematics Princeton University Press Copyright © 2005 Princeton University Press All right reserved. Chapter One The women appearing in this chapter, inspirations for many currently active mathematicians, received their doctorates before 1960. Julia Robinson's mathematics led to her election as the first woman mathematician in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS); she was also the first woman elected president of the American Mathematical Society (AMS). Marjorie Lee Browne is the third African-American woman currently known to have earned a Ph.D. in mathematics; two of the women profiled in "A Dual Triumph," III.1, cite her as an inspiration. Familial connections abound in this chapter: both Ratto de Sadosky and Barnes had daughters who became mathematicians, while Ratto de Sadosky, Taussky Todd, and Robinson had mathematician husbands. In Her Own Words I came to the U.S. for the first time in 1934, and this is where the story really ought to begin. Reference

Pope Francis should embrace capitalism. It creates the wealth that makes charity possible Christians are no friend of the golden calf. Jesus threw the money changers out of the temple and warned that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to get to Heaven. So it seems fitting than in his first statement of papal intent, Francis launched a scathing attack on free market capitalism. Quote: Just as the commandment “Thou shalt not kill” sets a clear limit in order to safeguard the value of human life, today we also have to say “thou shalt not” to an economy of exclusion and inequality. Such an economy kills. All of this is sadly accurate. But is the Pope's analysis one hundred per cent on the money? That distinction is important. It has been twenty years since communism fell and free markets reigned, and those years have been wonderful for billions of people. Of course, one side-effect is an uneven distribution of wealth and growing inequality. Which is why Christian compassion is maybe the best way to help reduce inequality.

The Market Capitalism Model Books of the Year 2015: Who Read What As a reader 2015 turns out for me to have been, to cop a phrase from Frank Sinatra, a very good year. I read the two greatest prose works in 18th-century English, and perhaps any other, literature: Edward Gibbon’s “The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” and James Boswell’s “The Life of Johnson.” I read both works, which together run to roughly 4,500 pages, in the early morning hours, slowly, at the rate of 15 or 20 pages a day. If St. Peter, or in my case St. Peterstein, as a requirement for gaining entry into heaven, pulls a quiz on either work, I am ready for the old boy. Mr. What Should a Pope Say about Capitalism? If you are a free marketeer offended by Pope Francis’s Evangelii Gaudium (“The Joy of the Gospel”) — in which he critiqued “deified” market capitalism and attacked income inequality — ask yourself: What should the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church say about economics in 2013? Should he take a victory lap over free enterprise’s defeat of Communism as if it were 1993? Pope Francis offers his sharp challenge in the wake of a deep global recession whose aftermath continues to plague advanced economies. At the same time, globalization and technology have created both amazing wealth and growing inequality within nations around the world. Certainly now is not a time for “end of history” triumphalism that fails to recognize every human construct is imperfect and generates tradeoffs. Hardly a Randian paean to the Heroic One Percent, that. — James Pethokoukis, a columnist, blogs for the American Enterprise Institute.