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Capitalism

Capitalism
The degree of competition, role of intervention and regulation, and scope of state ownership varies across different models of capitalism.[5] Economists, political economists, and historians have taken different perspectives in their analysis of capitalism and recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire capitalism, welfare capitalism, crony capitalism and state capitalism; each highlighting varying degrees of dependency on markets, public ownership, and inclusion of social policies. The extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, is a matter of politics and policy. Many states have what are termed capitalist mixed economies, referring to a mix between planned and market-driven elements.[6] Capitalism has existed under many forms of government, in many different times, places, and cultures.[7] Following the demise of feudalism, capitalism became the dominant economic system in the Western world. Etymology[edit]

Anglo-Saxon economy The Anglo-Saxon model or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is practiced in English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia[1] and Ireland [2]) is a capitalist model that emerged in the 1970s[citation needed], based on the Chicago school of economics[citation needed]. However, its origins date to the 18th century in the United Kingdom under the ideas of the classical economist Adam Smith. Disagreements over meaning[edit] Proponents of the term "Anglo-Saxon economy" argue that the economies of these countries currently are so closely related in their liberalist and free market orientation that they can be regarded as sharing a specific macroeconomic model. However, those who disagree with the use of the term claim that the economies of the these countries differ as much from each other as they do from the "welfare capitalist" economies of northern and continental Europe. See also[edit] References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

Agrarianism Agrarianism has two common meanings. The first meaning refers to a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.[1] It stresses the superiority of a simpler rural life as opposed to the complexity of city life, with its banks and factories. The American Thomas Jefferson was a representative agrarian who built Jeffersonian Democracy around the notion that farmers are “the most valuable citizens” and the truest republicans.[2] The philosophical roots of agrarianism include European and Chinese philosophers. Secondly, the term "agrarianism" means political proposals for land redistribution, specifically the distribution of land from the rich to the poor or landless. Philosophy[edit] M. History[edit] Greece and Rome[edit] In Greece, Hesiod, Aristotle, and Xenophon promoted agrarian ideas. 20th century[edit]

Fascism Fascism (/ˈfæʃɪzəm/) is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism,[1][2] characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of society and of the economy,[3] which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.[4] The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I before it spread to other European countries.[4] Opposed to liberalism, Marxism and anarchism, fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.[5][6][7][4][8][9] Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants. Etymology Definitions John Lukacs, Hungarian-American historian and Holocaust survivor, argues that there is no such thing as generic fascism. Position in the political spectrum "Fascist" as a pejorative History

William Shatner Shatner has also worked as a musician; an author; screenwriter and director; celebrity pitchman; and a passionate owner, trader, breeder, rider, and aficionado of horses. Early life[edit] Shatner was born in the Notre-Dame-de-Grâce neighbourhood of Montréal, Québec, Canada, to a Conservative Jewish household.[3] His parents are Anne (née Garmaise) and Joseph Shatner, a clothing manufacturer.[4][5] He has two sisters, Joy and Farla.[6] His paternal grandfather, Wolf Schattner, anglicized the family name to "Shatner".[7] All of Shatner's four grandparents were Jewish immigrants (from Austria-Hungary, Ukraine, and Lithuania).[8][9] Acting career[edit] Early stage, film, and television work[edit] Shatner publicity photo, 1958 In 1954, he was cast as Ranger Bob on The Canadian Howdy Doody Show.[18] Shatner was an understudy to Christopher Plummer; the two would later appear as adversaries in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. Star Trek[edit] Shatner as Capt. 1970s[edit] Kirk returns and T.

Kapitalismus Tento článek není dostatečně ozdrojován a může tedy obsahovat informace, které je třeba ověřit. Jste-li s popisovaným předmětem seznámeni, pomozte doložit uvedená tvrzení doplněním referencí na věrohodné zdroje. Stát si většinou ponechává možnost takový ekonomický systém regulovat zákony, např. zákoníkem práce či obchodním zákoníkem. Anarchokapitalismus je pak název pro systém kapitalismu bez přítomnosti jakékoli státní regulace. Ekonomiky takových států, kde stát zasahuje do ekonomiky, jsou smíšené; tržní principy fungují v určitých oblastech, v jiných však vládne monopol či monopson státu. Historický vývoj kapitalismu[editovat | editovat zdroj] Americká burza NYSE, rok 1963. Kapitalistické vztahy v hospodářství se v Evropě objevují již od 16. století, kdy začaly pomalu vytlačovat vztahy feudální. Definice[editovat | editovat zdroj] Will Hutton a Anthony Giddens identifikují tři základní charakteristiky kapitalismu: Kritika kapitalismu a jeho alternativy[editovat | editovat zdroj]

Free market For economic systems coordinated by either free markets or regulated markets, see Market economy. A free market is a market system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between sellers and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority. A free market contrasts with a controlled market or regulated market, in which government intervenes in supply and demand through non-market methods such as laws creating barriers to market entry or directly setting prices. A free market economy is a market-based economy where prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without intervention by government policy, and it typically entails support for highly competitive markets and private ownership of productive enterprises. Economic systems[edit] Laissez-faire economics[edit] Notes[edit]

Bolshevik The Bolsheviks were the majority faction in a crucial vote, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[6] The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which would later become the chief constituent of the Soviet Union in 1922. The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a major organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism. History of the split[edit] In the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, held in Brussels and London during August 1903, Lenin and Julius Martov disagreed over the membership rules. Origins of the name[edit]

Nazism Nazism, or National Socialism in full (German: Nationalsozialismus), is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and state as well as other related far-right groups. Usually characterised as a form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism, Nazism originally developed from the influences of pan-Germanism, the Völkisch German nationalist movement and the anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary culture in post-First World War Germany, which many Germans felt had been left humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles. German Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and social Darwinism, asserted the superiority of an Aryan master race, and criticised both capitalism and communism for being associated with Jewish materialism. The Nazi Party was founded as the pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party in January 1919. Etymology Position in the political spectrum Origins Völkisch nationalism

Text - H.R.4 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 Calendar No. 401 To reauthorize programs of the Federal Aviation Administration, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. (a) Short title. (b) Table of contents. Sec. 1. Except as otherwise expressly provided, this Act and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act. SEC. 101. (a) Authorization. “(1) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2018; “(2) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2019; “(3) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2020; “(4) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2021; “(5) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2022; and “(6) $3,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2023.”. (b) Obligation authority. SEC. 102. (a) Authorization of appropriations from Airport and Airway Trust Fund. “(1) $3,330,000,000 for fiscal year 2018. “(2) $3,398,000,000 for fiscal year 2019. “(3) $3,469,000,000 for fiscal year 2020. “(4) $3,547,000,000 for fiscal year 2021. (b) Authorized expenditures. SEC. 103.

Pope finds a new enemy - capitalism Pope Francis's attack on some of the values of capitalism has reignited a long-running debate about whether the free market is compatible with Christianity. The recently elected Pope continued his revitalization of the Church with an outspoken statement against the "new tyranny" of "unfettered capitalism." (Read more: Pope Francis on capitalism) "Some people continue to defend trickle-down theories which assume that economic growth,encouraged by a free market, will inevitably succeed in bringing about greater justice and inclusiveness in the world,"he wrote, in a direct rebuttal of the theory espoused by free-market thinkers that wealth eventually benefits the whole of society. "This opinion, which has never been confirmed by the facts, expresses a crude and naive trust in the goodness of those wielding economic power and in the sacralised workings of the prevailing economic system." In essence, no to Gordon Gekko, yes to Bill Gates. (Read more: Vatican opens its books)

Market Capitalism, State-Style Ying Ma on The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? by Ian Bremmer. Ian Bremmer. The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? Portfolio. 240 Pages. $26.95. Ian bremmer believes that the free market is worth defending. That threat is state capitalism, and around the world it appears to be the new fad. The governments may be different, but the underlying logic is the same. State presence in the economy, however, does not automatically make a country state capitalist. Unfortunately for market capitalism, the great crash of 2008 has greatly burnished state capitalism’s credentials. Nonetheless, state capitalism is not the way to go, according to The End of the Free Market. Since the end of the Cold War, one authoritarian country after another — from Asia to the Middle East, from Russia to Latin America — has embraced capitalism. Of course, no country can rival China as the granddaddy of state capitalism today.

Nationalism Nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation. Nationalism involves national identity, by contrast with the related construct of patriotism, which involves the social conditioning and personal behaviors that support a state's decisions and actions.[1] From a psychological perspective, nationalism (national attachment) is distinct from other types of attachment, for example, attachment to a religion or a romantic partner. The desire for interpersonal attachment, or the need to belong, is one of the most fundamental human motivations. From a political or sociological perspective, there are two main perspectives on the origins and basis of nationalism. There are various definitions for what constitutes a nation, however, which leads to several different strands of nationalism. History[edit] The term nationalism was first used by Johann Gottfried Herder the prophet of this new creed. Causes[edit]

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