Inside Google Plus | Magazine The positive response to Google+ has been sweet vindication for Bradley Horowitz, Google's VP of products.Photo: Pamela Littky For all of Google’s successes, the company has an underwhelming track record when it comes to social networks. Time after time, its attempts have been met with shrugs or downright hostility. But Buzz was an embarrassing debacle. Now Google is back with Google+, a new and even more ambitious social service. Ever conscious of its past failings, the Googlers had braced for a skeptical reception when Google+ was introduced as a “field test” in June. The positive response was sweet vindication for Bradley Horowitz, Google’s vice president of products. Wired: What was the launch like? Horowitz: It’s a bit of a blur.
Capitalism The degree of competition, role of intervention and regulation, and scope of state ownership varies across different models of capitalism. Economists, political economists, and historians have taken different perspectives in their analysis of capitalism and recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire capitalism, welfare capitalism, crony capitalism and state capitalism; each highlighting varying degrees of dependency on markets, public ownership, and inclusion of social policies. The extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, is a matter of politics and policy. Etymology The term capitalist as referring to an owner of capital (rather than its meaning of someone adherent to the economic system) shows earlier recorded use than the term capitalism, dating back to the mid-17th century. Economic elements The essential feature of capitalism is the investment of money in order to make a profit.
Religious views of Albert Einstein Albert Einstein, 1921. Albert Einstein's religious views have been studied extensively. He said he believed in the "pantheistic" God of Baruch Spinoza, but not in a personal god, a belief he criticized. He also called himself an agnostic, while disassociating himself from the label atheist, preferring, he said, "an attitude of humility corresponding to the weakness of our intellectual understanding of nature and of our own being. Early childhood Einstein was raised by secular Jewish parents. . . . Beliefs Einstein used many labels to describe his religious views, including "agnostic", "religious nonbeliever" and a "pantheistic" believer in "Spinoza's God Personal God and the afterlife Einstein expressed his skepticism regarding an anthropomorphic deity, often describing it as "naïve" and "childlike". On 22 March 1954 Einstein received a letter from Joseph Dispentiere, an Italian immigrant who had worked as an experimental machinist in New Jersey. Determinism
Cycling glove Cycling gloves are gloves designed for cycling. They fulfill many functions, including: warmth, comfort and protection. A white leather fingerless cycling glove on a man's hand Basic functionality Warmth In Qufu, Shandong, where winter weather is freezing, owners of electric bikes equip them with warm mittens/sleeves of sorts, attached to handlebars Gloves are frequently used to keep the hands warm, a function that is particularly necessary when cycling in cold weather. Comfort Cycling places a good deal of stress on the hands, in the form of prolonged pressure against handlebars and transmission of sudden road shocks through handlebars to the hands. However, excess padding can lead to other problems. Face and nose wiping Cyclists often deal with perspiration and nose running on a constant basis. Protection Putting a hand out to break a fall is a natural reaction. Types of gloves Fingerless cycling gloves, also known as track mitts. Buying gloves
Socialism Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, though social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms. Etymology The origin of the term "socialism" may be traced back and attributed to a number of originators, in addition to significant historical shifts in the usage and scope of the word. For Andrew Vincent, "[t]he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and then medieval law was societas. History Early socialism Paris Commune First International Second International Early 20th century
Terror management theory In social psychology, terror management theory (TMT) proposes a basic psychological conflict that results from having a desire to live but realizing that death is inevitable. This conflict produces terror, and is believed to be unique to human beings. Moreover, the solution to the conflict is also generally unique to humans: culture. The simplest examples of cultural values which manage the terror of death are those that purport to offer literal immortality (e.g. belief in afterlife, religion). However, TMT also argues that other cultural values – including those that are seemingly unrelated to death – offer symbolic immortality. Because cultural values determine that which is meaningful, they are also the basis for self-esteem. TMT is derived from anthropologist Ernest Becker's 1973 Pulitzer Prize-winning work of nonfiction The Denial of Death, in which Becker argues most human action is taken to ignore or avoid the inevitability of death. Background TMT and self-esteem
Why The Flu Virus Is More Infectious In Cold Winter Temperatures A finding by a team of scientists at the National Institutes of Health may account for why the flu virus is more infectious in cold winter temperatures than during the warmer months. At winter temperatures, the virus’s outer covering, or envelope, hardens to a rubbery gel that could shield the virus as it passes from person to person, the researchers have found. At warmer temperatures, however, the protective gel melts to a liquid phase. But this liquid phase apparently isn’t tough enough to protect the virus against the elements, and so the virus loses its ability to spread from person to person. “The study results open new avenues of research for thwarting winter flu outbreaks,” said National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Director Duane Alexander. Influenza viruses are usually spread from person to person through coughs and sneezes. Dr. “Like an M&M in your mouth, the protective covering melts when it enters the respiratory tract,” Dr. Similarly, Dr.
Nazism Nazism, or National Socialism in full (German: Nationalsozialismus), is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and state as well as other related far-right groups. Usually characterised as a form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism, Nazism originally developed from the influences of pan-Germanism, the Völkisch German nationalist movement and the anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary culture in post-First World War Germany, which many Germans felt had been left humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles. German Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and social Darwinism, asserted the superiority of an Aryan master race, and criticised both capitalism and communism for being associated with Jewish materialism. The Nazi Party was founded as the pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party in January 1919. Etymology Position in the political spectrum Origins Völkisch nationalism
Post-structuralism Post-structuralism is a label formulated by American academics to denote the heterogeneous works of a series of mid-20th-century French and continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to international prominence in the 1960s and '70s. A major theme of post-structuralism is instability in the human sciences, due to the complexity of humans themselves and the impossibility of fully escaping structures in order that we might study them. Post-structuralism is a response to structuralism. Structuralism is an intellectual movement developed in Europe from the early to mid-20th century. Theory General practices The author's intended meaning is secondary to the meaning that the reader perceives. Destabilized meaning In the post-structuralist approach to textual analysis, the reader replaces the author as the primary subject of inquiry. In his essay "Signification and Sense," Emmanuel Levinas remarked on this new field of semantic inquiry: Deconstruction
Dopamine release in human brain tracked at microsecond timescale reveals decision-making Public release date: 28-Oct-2011 [ Print | E-mail Share ] [ Close Window ] Contact: Paula Byronpaulabyron@vtc.vt.edu 540-526-2027Virginia Tech Roanoke, Va. – A research team led by investigators at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute has demonstrated the first rapid measurements of dopamine release in a human brain and provided preliminary evidence that the neurotransmitter can be tracked in its movement between brain cells while a subject expresses decision-making behavior. "In an experiment where we measured dopamine release while a subject made investment decisions in a stock market trading game, we showed that dopamine tracks changes in the value of the market," said Read Montague, director of the Human Neuroimaging Laboratory at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and professor of physics in the College of Science at Virginia Tech. "This exciting preliminary result requires replication, but it immediately sets the imagination in motion," said Kishida.
Feudalism Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the medieval period. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals and fiefs. There is also a broader definition, as described by Marc Bloch (1939), that includes not only warrior nobility but all three estates of the realm: the nobility, the clerics and the peasantry bonds of manorialism; this is sometimes referred to as a "feudal society". Definition
Post-materialism In sociology, post-materialism is the transformation of individual values from materialist, physical and economic to new individual values of autonomy and self-expression. Post-materialism is a tool in developing an understanding of modern culture. It can be considered in reference of three distinct concepts of materialism. Depending on which of the three above notions of materialism are being discussed, post-materialism can be an ontological postmaterialism, an existentialistic postmaterialism, an ethical postmaterialism or a political-sociological postmaterialism, which is also the best known. History The sociological theory of post-materialism was developed in the 1970s by Ronald Inglehart. The theory of intergenerational change is based on two key hypotheses: The Scarcity HypothesisThe Socialisation Hypothesis The Scarcity Hypothesis Inglehart assumed that individuals pursue various goals in something akin to a hierarchical order. The Socialization Hypothesis Notes