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Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning "few", and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning "to rule or to command")[1][2][3] is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, education, corporate, or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have been tyrannical (relying on public obedience and/or oppression to exist) or relatively benign. History[edit] Athenian techniques to prevent the rise of oligarchy Manifestations[edit] Forms of government and other political structures associated with oligarchy can include aristocracy, meritocracy, military junta, plutocracy, stratocracy, technocracy, theocracy and timocracy. Corporate oligarchy[edit] Related:  The Big Picture: undercurrents / influences / inspirations

Nederland buiten kennis Nederland kan alleen meer verdienen door meer uit te vinden, maar er is gebrek aan de belangrijkste grondstof: kennis. De technisch hoogopgeleide mensen die voor deze innovaties nodig zijn, studeren niet in Nederland. Al jarenlang spreekt de Nederlandse politiek de ambitie uit bij de beste kenniseconomieën ter wereld te behoren. Een ambitie die tot nu toe vooral weerslag krijgt in stapels rapporten en abstracte ranglijsten. Om het begrip kenniseconomie concreet te maken gaat Tegenlicht samen met Jan Kamminga, voorman van de Nederlandse high-tech industrie, te rade bij enkele van Nederlands meest innovatieve bedrijven, waaronder de succesvolle chipmachinefabrikant ASML. Kamminga en ondernemers houden een hartstochtelijk pleidooi om nu fors te investeren in het technische/exacte onderwijs in Nederland: dat is de basis van onze huidige en toekomstige welvaart.

Simon Johnson (economist) Simon H. Johnson (born January 16, 1963)[1] is a British American economist. He is the Ronald A. He is author, with James Kwak, of the 2010 book 13 Bankers: The Wall Street Takeover and the Next Financial Meltdown (ISBN 978-0307379054), with whom he has also co-founded and regularly contributes to the economics blog The Baseline Scenario.[6] Among other positions he is a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and a Research Fellow at the Centre for Economic Policy Research.[8] He is also a member of the Congressional Budget Office's Panel of Economic Advisers.[5] From 2006 to 2007 he was a visiting fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, where he is currently a senior fellow.[5] He is on the editorial board of four academic economics journals.[5] He has contributed to Project Syndicate since 2007. Brown–Kaufman amendment Johnson, Simon, "The Quiet Coup", Atlantic Monthly, May 2009

Gerontocracy A gerontocracy is a form of oligarchical rule in which an entity is ruled by leaders who are significantly older than most of the adult population. The ancient Greeks were among the first to believe in this idea of gerontocracies, as famously stated by Plato, "it is for the elder man to rule and for the younger to submit".[1] However, these beliefs are not unique to ancient Greece, as many cultures still subscribe to this way of thinking. Often these political structures are such that political power within the ruling class accumulates with age, making the oldest the holders of the most power. Those holding the most power may not be in formal leadership positions, but often dominate those who are. In a simplified definition, a gerontocracy is a society where leadership is reserved for elders.[2] The best example of this can be seen in the ancient Greek city state of Sparta, which was ruled by a Gerousia. In various political systems[edit] In the USSR[edit] Theocracy[edit] Fiction[edit]

Bernie Sanders: they are "Hell bent on destroying the middle class and creating an Oligarchy" Crossposted at The Progressive More from Bernie Sanders . . . (T)he truth is that working families have been experiencing a decline for decades. During the Bush years alone, from 2000-2008, median family income dropped by nearly $2,200 and millions lost their health insurance. Bold text and italics added by the diarist The average two-wage-earner family has less disposable income than a one-wage-earner family did a generation ago. And, as Bernie Sanders so points out, the richest 400 families in America are richer than ever. Now, I would argue that we already have an Oligarchy now, but certainly Bernie Sanders is already aware of that. So what happens when a few people have more money than medium sized countries? From, where Billionaires are applauded as the Randian heroes they imagine themselves to be. George Lucas? Here is yourTop Ten wealthiest plutocrats in America circa 2009 That is why I have introduced the Responsible Estate Tax Act (S.3533).

Financial Giants Put New York City Cops On Their Payroll Videos are springing up across the internet showing uniformed members of the New York Police Department in white shirts (as opposed to the typical NYPD blue uniforms) pepper spraying and brutalizing peaceful, nonthreatening protestors attempting to take part in the Occupy Wall Street marches. Corporate media are reporting that these white shirts are police supervisors as opposed to rank and file. Recently discovered documents suggest something else may be at work. If you’re a Wall Street behemoth, there are endless opportunities to privatize profits and socialize losses beyond collecting trillions of dollars in bailouts from taxpayers. One of the ingenious methods that has remained below the public’s radar was started by the Rudy Giuliani administration in New York City in 1998. The corporations pay an average of $37 an hour (no medical, no pension benefit, no overtime pay) for a member of the NYPD, with gun, handcuffs and the ability to arrest.

Competing Against Non-Consumption Disruptive innovations infiltrate existing markets in amazing ways. At the World Innovation Forum this week, BIF research advisor Clay Christensen talked about the importance for established companies to compete against non-consumption and reliably plug these growth gaps before they surprise the market. First, a definition: a new-market disruption is an innovation that enables a larger population of people who previously lacked the money or skill to begin buying and using a product (or service). Typically that product or service does not match the quality of higher-end models but that's o.k. To the non-discriminating non-consumer, something is so much better than nothing. Meanwhile, established companies in the high-end market may take notice of these new innovations, but they rarely take them seriously. At the forum this week, Clay put this idea of competing against non-consumption through the lens of solar energy. (Photo courtesy of Dov Friedmann )

Demeny voting Demeny voting is the provision of a political voice for children by allowing parents or guardians to vote on their behalf. The term was coined by Warren C. Sanderson in 2007.[1] Under a Demeny voting system, each parent would cast a proxy vote, worth half a vote, for each of their dependent children, thus allowing for a split vote if the parents' political views differ. History[edit] Demeny voting is named after demographer Paul Demeny, who came up with the idea in 1986. The idea, however, is older than Demeny's idea; it was regularly discussed in France in the 1920s and was almost adopted by the National Assembly.[3][4] In Germany the idea was even first discussed in the 1910s.[5] In the 1970s and the 1980s lawyers and political scientists began a discussion which is still going on. Japan has discussed Demeny voting as a possible answer to its aging population, which gives disproportionate voice to the elderly as a result of their increasing numbers. Advantages[edit] Disadvantages[edit]

Elysium (film) The film takes place on both a ravaged Earth, and a luxurious space habitat called Elysium.[5] It explores political and sociological themes such as immigration, overpopulation, health care, exploitation, the justice system, and class issues.[6] In 2154, a minute number of people reside on a luxurious space habitat called Elysium and the vast majority on an overpopulated and devastated Earth. While those on Earth are policed by ruthless robots, Elysium's citizens live in absolute comfort and regularly use medical devices called Med-Bays to cure any disease and injury. Max Da Costa (Matt Damon), a former car thief, and now a parolee, lives in the ruins of Los Angeles and works at an assembly line for Armadyne Corp, a company which supplies Elysian weaponry as well as the robots which police Earth. Spider agrees to get Max to Elysium if he steals financial information from Carlyle. To assist him, Spider's doctors surgically attach a powered exoskeleton to Max.

The Shock Doctrine The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism is a 2007 book by the Canadian author Naomi Klein, and is the basis of a 2009 documentary by the same name directed by Michael Winterbottom.[1] The book argues that libertarian free market policies (as advocated by the economist Milton Friedman) have risen to prominence in some developed countries because of a deliberate strategy by some political leaders. These leaders exploit crises to push through controversial exploitative policies while citizens are too emotionally and physically distracted by disasters or upheavals to mount an effective resistance. The book implies that some man-made crises, such as the Iraq war, may have been created with the intention of pushing through these unpopular policies in their wake. Synopsis[edit] The book has an introduction, a main body and a conclusion, divided into seven parts with a total of 21 chapters. [edit] Favorable[edit] Paul B. Mixed[edit] Unfavorable[edit] Awards[edit] See also[edit]

Research School SENSE tton Candy USB stick turns any flatscreen television into a working computer By Rob Waugh Published: 12:54 GMT, 15 May 2012 | Updated: 13:22 GMT, 15 May 2012 The computer of the future could be a tiny pocket-sized stick that you simply plug into the back of any flatscreen television. The Cotton Candy USB stick turns any television into a fully functioning computer armed with the Android operating system, HD games and word processing via Google Documents. The price for the Cotton Candy hasn't been set yet - but it will be 'well under $200/£125', its makers promise. The tiny computer weighs just 21g and can run Ubuntu - a free operating system similar to Windows - or versions of Android, bringing video, gaming and word processing to any TV All you need is a suitable wireless keyboard and mouse, and it will function much as a desktop PC. ‘We believe that we’ve got a market changer on our hands,’ says Borgar Ljosland, CEO and founder of Norwegian makers FXI. Unlike the similar Raspberry Pi stick-computer, the Cotton Candy won't require advanced programming skills.

Iron law of oligarchy History[edit] In 1911 Robert Michels argued that paradoxically the socialist parties of Europe, despite their democratic ideology and provisions for mass participation, seemed to be dominated by their leaders, just like traditional conservative parties. Michels' conclusion was that the problem lay in the very nature of organizations. The more liberal and democratic modern era allowed the formation of organizations with innovative and revolutionary goals, but as such organizations become more complex, they became less and less democratic and revolutionary. Michels formulated the "Iron Law of Oligarchy": "Who says organization, says oligarchy. At the time Michels formulated his Law, he was an anarcho-syndicalist.[3] He later became an important ideologue of Benito Mussolini's fascist regime in Italy, teaching economics at the University of Perugia.[4][5] Reasons[edit] Michels stressed several factors that underlie the Iron Law of Oligarchy. Implications[edit] Examples and exceptions[edit]