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Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning "few", and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning "to rule or to command")[1][2][3] is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, education, corporate, or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have been tyrannical (relying on public obedience and/or oppression to exist) or relatively benign. History[edit] Athenian techniques to prevent the rise of oligarchy Manifestations[edit] Forms of government and other political structures associated with oligarchy can include aristocracy, meritocracy, military junta, plutocracy, stratocracy, technocracy, theocracy and timocracy. Corporate oligarchy[edit]

Gerontocracy A gerontocracy is a form of oligarchical rule in which an entity is ruled by leaders who are significantly older than most of the adult population. The ancient Greeks were among the first to believe in this idea of gerontocracies, as famously stated by Plato, "it is for the elder man to rule and for the younger to submit".[1] However, these beliefs are not unique to ancient Greece, as many cultures still subscribe to this way of thinking. Often these political structures are such that political power within the ruling class accumulates with age, making the oldest the holders of the most power. Those holding the most power may not be in formal leadership positions, but often dominate those who are. In a simplified definition, a gerontocracy is a society where leadership is reserved for elders.[2] The best example of this can be seen in the ancient Greek city state of Sparta, which was ruled by a Gerousia. In various political systems[edit] In the USSR[edit] Theocracy[edit] Fiction[edit]

Demeny voting Demeny voting is the provision of a political voice for children by allowing parents or guardians to vote on their behalf. The term was coined by Warren C. Sanderson in 2007.[1] Under a Demeny voting system, each parent would cast a proxy vote, worth half a vote, for each of their dependent children, thus allowing for a split vote if the parents' political views differ. History[edit] Demeny voting is named after demographer Paul Demeny, who came up with the idea in 1986. The idea, however, is older than Demeny's idea; it was regularly discussed in France in the 1920s and was almost adopted by the National Assembly.[3][4] In Germany the idea was even first discussed in the 1910s.[5] In the 1970s and the 1980s lawyers and political scientists began a discussion which is still going on. Japan has discussed Demeny voting as a possible answer to its aging population, which gives disproportionate voice to the elderly as a result of their increasing numbers. Advantages[edit] Disadvantages[edit]

tton Candy USB stick turns any flatscreen television into a working computer By Rob Waugh Published: 12:54 GMT, 15 May 2012 | Updated: 13:22 GMT, 15 May 2012 The computer of the future could be a tiny pocket-sized stick that you simply plug into the back of any flatscreen television. The Cotton Candy USB stick turns any television into a fully functioning computer armed with the Android operating system, HD games and word processing via Google Documents. The price for the Cotton Candy hasn't been set yet - but it will be 'well under $200/£125', its makers promise. The tiny computer weighs just 21g and can run Ubuntu - a free operating system similar to Windows - or versions of Android, bringing video, gaming and word processing to any TV All you need is a suitable wireless keyboard and mouse, and it will function much as a desktop PC. ‘We believe that we’ve got a market changer on our hands,’ says Borgar Ljosland, CEO and founder of Norwegian makers FXI. Unlike the similar Raspberry Pi stick-computer, the Cotton Candy won't require advanced programming skills.

Smart tips to make life easier | Xaxor Posted on February 24, 2012 in Humor If you’re new here, you may want to subscribe to our RSS feed or follow us on Facebook or Twitter . Thanks for visiting! Rate this Post (16 votes, average: 5.00 out of 5) Loading... So...

World Map, Online Maps, Satellite Maps - National Geographic Skip to this page's content National Geographic Society P.O. Box 98199 Washington, DC 20090-8199 USA Sign In Join Search National Geographic Search Search Video Connect: Current Issue April 2014 Table of Contents » MapMachine Satellite, street maps and more in our online atlas. Close Email This Map to a Friend Please enter your name and your friend's email Your Name Message (optional) Friend's Email Your email has been sent. 6000 miles © 2014 Microsoft Corporation © 2010 NAVTEQ Road Aerial Bird's eye Labels Bing Maps 3D has finished updating data More From National Geographic America's Best Adventures Browse the 50 best American adventures on a map of the U.S. TOPO! Browse and download topo maps and trails from our new recreation database. My Shot Maps Explore the world through the eyes of our My Shot members. Subscriptions Home Delivery

Angel Moroni The Angel Moroni (/moʊˈroʊnaɪ/[1]) is, in Mormonism, an angel that visited Joseph Smith on numerous occasions, beginning on September 21, 1823. According to Smith, the angel was the guardian of the golden plates, which Latter Day Saints believe were the source material for the Book of Mormon, buried in a hill near Smith's home in western New York. Moroni is an important figure in the theology of the Latter Day Saint movement, and is featured prominently in Mormon architecture and art. Three Witnesses besides Smith also reported that they saw Moroni in visions in 1829, as did several other witnesses who each said they had their own vision. Angel's name and identity[edit] There have been two conflicting accounts as to the name of the angel. "Question 4th. "Answer. Description[edit] Descriptions of the angel Moroni vary. Appearances to Joseph Smith and others[edit] The angel Moroni delivering the plates of the Book of Mormon to Joseph Smith. Mortal life of Moroni the prophet[edit] Torleif S.

Cosmoetica: The oldest and most popular non-commercial arts site online! History: Cultural Issues Cultural Issues Dominant Representations of Lesbians The broader cultural archetypes that represent lesbians today did not just appear out of mid air. The figures of the lesbian athlete, the lesbian actress, and the lesbian writer have historically been both productions of mainstream culture in order to represent lesbianism as a “problem,” and also the lived experiences of lesbians within dominant, heterosexual culture. This section will trace the ways lesbians were constructed as stereotypes of failed femininity (and thus failed heterosexuality) within mainstream culture, and also how lesbians used the cultural spaces made possible by these (frequently derogatory) representations to fashion lesbian identities, lesbian cultural spaces, and innovative ways to produce culture that speaks back to and through mainstream representations. Lesbians and the Female Athlete “masculine man-haters or lesbians,” (Kahn, 41) in a conflation of gender identity, sexuality, and even gender preference.

The Kinsey Institute - Sexuality Information Links - FAQ [Related Resources] There is not a wealth of research on the prevalence of transgenderism and transsexualism. Research that has been done has tended to focus on a particular set of individuals: transsexual individuals who experience gender dysphoria and who present for gender-transition-related care at specialist gender clinics. This does not represent the numbers of other transgender or transsexual individuals who may not experience gender dysphoria and may not seek any kind of medical treatment. Alexander, Priscilla. . 1987. Allen, E. Amato, P. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). . Atkins, DC, Baucom, DH, & Jacobson, NS (2001). Betzig, L. (1989). Figures from the clinical work of Dr. Boyers, DB, Kegeles, SM. Bramlett, M. Bridges, S.K., Lease, S.H., Ellison, C.R. (2004). Buzzell, T (2005). Call, V., Sprecher, S., & Schwartz, P. (1995). Cates, Willard. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. . 2000a. Cerny, J., & Janssen, E. (2011). Connoly, P. (2006). U.S.

30 Very Funny Books--Seriously By Gina Barreca, Ph.D. It's a dreary day, so I thought I'd indulge myself and come up with a list of my favorite comedies. A caveat, however: this is not a fancy English-professor-y list of the finest, most exquisitely crafted, most erudite or intellectually sophisticated works on paper in the language. This is a list of the books that make me laugh until my mascara starts to run. These are books to read over your first cup of coffee or just before you go to sleep . Remember: a day you've laughed is day you haven't wasted--even if you didn't get out of bed. Some days you need a jump-start to get to the funny parts of life. You've probably heard of most of these titles, and maybe you've already read several of them. You ready? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. And of course this is just the beginning.

8 Secrets From the Wonderful World of Disney 1. There Are Human Remains in the Haunted Mansion The Haunted Mansion ride at Disneyland is one of the scariest places in the park, but not for the reasons you’d expect. In his 1994 book Mouse Tales , former Disney employee David Koenig tells the story of a tourist group that requested a little extra time on the ride so they could hold a quick memorial for a 7-year-old boy. Disney gave the family permission, but it turns out, the memorial was only half their plan. When the mourners were spotted sprinkling a powdery substance off their “doom buggies,” the Haunted Mansion was quickly shut down until all the remains could be cleaned up. This wasn’t an isolated incident. 2. Each night at Disneyland, after the sunburned families and exhausted cast members have made their way home, the park fills up again—this time, with hundreds of feral cats. Park officials love the felines because they help control the mouse population. Today, there are plenty of benefits to being a Disney-employed mouser.

Hypnic jerk A hypnic jerk, hypnagogic jerk, sleep start, sleep twitch or night start, is an involuntary twitch which occurs just as a person is beginning to fall asleep, often causing them to awaken suddenly for a moment. Physically, hypnic jerks resemble the "jump" experienced by a person when startled,[1] often accompanied by a falling sensation.[2] A higher occurrence is reported in people with irregular sleep schedules.[3] Causes[edit] According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine there are a wide range of potential causes, including anxiety, caffeine, stress and strenuous activities in the evening. During an epilepsy and intensive care study, the lack of a preceding spike discharge measured on an epilepsy monitoring unit, along with the presence only at sleep onset, helped differentiate hypnic jerks from epileptic myoclonus.[5] Cycle[edit] If you lose sleep because you constantly jerk awake, you will become fatigued and may develop anxiety or worry about falling asleep. See also[edit]