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How Do We Know What We Know?

How Do We Know What We Know?

Related:  Evolution

The National Academies In the News: Your Inner Fish – A Scientific Adventure Have you ever wondered why people look the way they do? Why our hands and feet have five digits instead of six? Why we stand on two legs instead of four? It took 350 million years of evolution to produce the amazing machine we call the human body and in Your Inner Fish, a three-part series based on the best-selling book of the same name, author and evolutionary biologist Dr. Conflicting Selection Pressures Copyright© Copyright The Concord Consortium Record Link <a href="stem-resources/conflicting-selection-pressures">The Concord Consortium. Conflicting Selection Pressures. Concord: The Concord Consortium, 2010, September 11.</a> AIP Conflicting Selection Pressures (The Concord Consortium, Concord, 2010, September 11), WWW Document, (

Atlas of the Human Journey - The Genographic Project When humans first ventured out of Africa some 60,000 years ago, they left genetic footprints still visible today. By mapping the appearance and frequency of genetic markers in modern peoples, we create a picture of when and where ancient humans moved around the world. These great migrations eventually led the descendants of a small group of Africans to occupy even the farthest reaches of the Earth. Our species is an African one: Africa is where we first evolved, and where we have spent the majority of our time on Earth. The earliest fossils of recognizably modern Homo sapiens appear in the fossil record at Omo Kibish in Ethiopia, around 200,000 years ago.

The Marketplace in Your Brain - The Chronicle Review By Josh Fischman Lauren Lancaster for The Chronicle Review Screens show an experiment and results from a functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging machine in the lab at the Center for Neuroeconomics at New York U. Elizabeth Phelps, the psychologist running this project, says that she was "initially skeptical" that economics could refine neuroscience but that she has become a convert. In 2003, amid the coastal greenery of the Winnetu Oceanside Resort, on Martha's Vineyard, a group of about 20 scholars gathered to kick-start a new discipline. They fell, broadly, into two groups: neuroscientists and economists.

Edwards v. Aguillard [This is the text of the 1987 United States Supreme Court decision striking down a Louisiana law that required if evolution is taught in public schools then creationism must also be taught. This 7-2 decision ended any prospect of public schools in the United States being legally forced to teach explicate creationism. One consequence of this case was that some antievolutionists choose to use the term "intelligent design" instead of "creationism."] The Supreme Court affirmed the judgment of the court of appeals, which in turn had affirmed the District Court's decision finding the Louisiana act unconstitutional. The decision had Brennan, Marshall, Blackmun, Powell, Stevens, O'Connor, and White on the majority, with Scalia and Rehnquist dissenting. Held Opinion Majority Opinion by Brennan I, II, III (A)(B), IV, V Concurring Opinion by Powell I (A), (B), II, III Concurring Opinion by White Dissenting Opinion by Scalia I, II, (A) (B), III

Natural Selection Copyright© Copyright The Concord Consortium Record Link <a href="stem-resources/natural-selection">The Concord Consortium. Natural Selection. Concord: The Concord Consortium, 2010, September 26.</a> AIP Natural Selection (The Concord Consortium, Concord, 2010, September 26), WWW Document, ( Timeline: The evolution of life - life - 14 July 2009 Read full article Continue reading page |1|2|3|4 There are all sorts of ways to reconstruct the history of life on Earth. Pinning down when specific events occurred is often tricky, though. For this, biologists depend mainly on dating the rocks in which fossils are found, and by looking at the "molecular clocks" in the DNA of living organisms. MIT's Luminoso Claims It's Cracked the Code on Text Mining A lawn care company recently discovered that people in New England were talking about their product, but mostly in relation to deals and rebates. Meanwhile, customers in Colorado seemed to be obsessed with how the brand's products killed bugs. Such insights were gleaned using technology from Luminoso, a startup hatched from MIT's Media Lab that is officially launching this month. Luminoso's not the only company analyzing text on the Internet in order to mine such relationships, but it claims its technology is a quantum leap over competitors like Lexalytics, Crimson Hexagon and Clarabridge. How? Catherine Havasi, Luminoso's co-founder and CEO (pictured, third from right), says the company's technology is based on 14 years of research at MIT that applies artificial intelligence, probability and a database of 17 million facts (many taken from Wikipedia) to appropriate common sense knowledge to text mining.

Variations and Adaptations Copyright© Copyright The Concord Consortium Record Link <a href="stem-resources/variations-and-adaptations">The Concord Consortium. Variations and Adaptations. Concord: The Concord Consortium, 2010, September 25.</a> AIP Variations and Adaptations (The Concord Consortium, Concord, 2010, September 25), WWW Document, ( Free conservation biology textbook: Conservation Biology for All Oxford University Press makes conservation biology textbook by some of the world's most prominent ecologists and conservation biologists available as free download Conservation Biology for All provides cutting-edge but basic conservation science to a global readership. A series of authoritative chapters have been written by the top names in conservation biology with the principal aim of disseminating cutting-edge conservation knowledge as widely as possible.

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