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Chaos (cosmogony)

Chaos (cosmogony)
Chaos (Greek χάος, khaos) refers to the formless or void state preceding the creation of the universe or cosmos in the Greek creation myths, more specifically the initial "gap" created by the original separation of heaven and earth. Hesiod and the Pre-Socratics use the Greek term in the context of cosmogony. Hesiod's chaos has often been interpreted as a moving, formless mass from which the cosmos and the gods originated, but Eric Voegelin sees it instead as creatio ex nihilo,[2] much as in the Book of Genesis. The term tohu wa-bohu of Genesis 1:2 has been shown to refer to a state of non-being prior to creation rather than to a state of matter.[3][4] The Septuagint makes no use of χάος in the context of creation, instead using the term for גיא, "chasm, cleft", in Micha 1:6 and Zacharia 14:4. This model of a primordial state of matter has been opposed by the Church Fathers from the 2nd century, who posited a creation ex nihilo by an omnipotent God.[6]

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The Battle with the Titans - Classical Mythology With his rescued siblings, Zeus had the beginnings of an army with which to challenge Cronus. However, Cronus had some difficulty in assembling his own forces. Some of the Titans refused to help him in the struggle. The Last of the Rephaim: Conquest and Cataclysm in the Heroic Ages of Ancient Israel TABLE OF CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS vii ILLUSTRATIONS xiv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xv Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. A RACE OF BIG MEN THERE WAS 14 Introduction 14 Giants in the Ancient World and the Modern Western Traditions 17 Greeks and Giants: 20th and 21st Century Scholarship 19t h- Early 20th Century Scholarship Renaissance and Medieval Europe The Giant in the Ancient World Jerusalem and Athens in Comparative Perspective 45 A View from the West: Classical Scholarship and the Near East A View from the East: Biblical Scholars and the Aegean World A Mediterranean koine A Note on the Comparative Method 75 Conclusion 82 3. ABBREVIATIONS Note: Abbreviations for all scholarly works, languages, biblical books, and other ancient sources follow the conventions of the SBL Handbook of Style (1999), including, or with the exception of, those listed below. A AA AAT ABSA Ac AcOr Am Ant AB ABD ABRL ACCS1 ACCSIV ACF AcS AE AES AFS AGHC AgHom AH AHR AJA AJBI AJP AJSLL AJT Am Ant ANET3 Ant.

Mahabharatha and Trojan war - Greek influence on India Pandavas were sent to forest for 14 years, similarly the Greek-Trojan conflict went on for nearly 14 years. The actual conflict described by Homer in Iliad is only 14 days. Same is the case with Mahabharata war, the war at Kurukshetra went on only for 14 days. The Trojan war scene of Iliad starts with reluctance of Achilles to fight the war. Arjuna does the same in the beginning of Mahabharata war in the beginning of the war. Arjuna asks Krishna to take him to the centre of war field, and after seeing both armies formations , he refuses to fight and drops down his bow and arrows.

Nigredo For the character in Xenosaga, see Gaignun Kukai. Nigredo is also an album by Diary of Dreams. Nigredo, or blackness, in alchemy means putrefaction or decomposition. The alchemists believed that as a first step in the pathway to the philosopher's stone all alchemical ingredients had to be cleansed and cooked extensively to a uniform black matter.[1]

Babylon Babylon (Arabic: بابل‎, Bābil; Akkadian: Bābili(m);[1] Sumerian logogram: KÁ.DINGIR.RAKI;[1] Hebrew: בָּבֶל, Bāḇel;[1] Ancient Greek: Βαβυλών Babylṓn; Old Persian: 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 Bābiru) was originally a Semitic Akkadian city dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire circa. 2300 BC. Originally a minor administrative center, it only became an independent city-state in 1894 BC in the hands of a migrant Amorite dynasty not native to ancient Mesopotamia. The Babylonians were more often ruled by other foreign migrant dynasties throughout their history, such as by the Kassites, Arameans, Elamites and Chaldeans, as well as by their fellow Mesopotamians, the Assyrians. The remains of the city are found in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, Iraq, about 85 kilometres (53 mi) south of Baghdad. Available historical resources suggest that Babylon was at first a small town which had sprung up by the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC (circa 2000 BC).

Gaia (Greek Mythology) The Greek word γαῖα (transliterated as gaia) is a collateral form of γῆ[4] (gē, Doric γᾶ ga and probably δᾶ da)[5] meaning Earth,[6] a word of uncertain origin.[7] R. S. P. DIOSCURI : Greek Gods of Horsemanship, Protectors of Sailors THE DIOSKOUROI (or Dioscuri) were twin star-crowned gods whose appearance (in the form of St Elmo's fire) on the rigging of a ships was believed to portent escape from a storm. They were also gods of horsemanship and protectors of guests and travellers. The twins were born as mortal princes, sons of the Spartan queen Leda, one being fathered by Zeus the other by her husband Tyndareus. Because of their generosity and kindness to man they were apotheosed into gods at death.

Greco-Roman mysteries See Western esotericism for modern "mystery religions" in the Western cultural sphere. Definition[edit] The term "Mystery" derives from Latin mysterium, from Greek mysterion (usually as the plural mysteria μυστήρια), in this context meaning "secret rite or doctrine".

Rubedo Interpretation[edit] The symbols used in alchemical writing and art to represent this red stage can include blood, a phoenix, a rose, a crowned king, or a figure wearing red clothes. Countless sources give mention to a reddening process. The seventeenth dictum of the 12th century Turba Philosophorum is one example: O Turba of Philosophers and disciples, now hast thou spoken about making into white, but it yet remains to treat concerning the reddening! Know, all ye seekers after this Art, that unless ye whiten, ye cannot make red, because the two natures are nothing other than red and white. Aeon (Thelema) In the religion of Thelema, it is believed that the history of humanity can be divided into a series of aeons, each of which was accompanied by its own forms of "magical and religious expression".[1] The first of these was the Aeon of Isis, which Thelemites believed occurred during prehistory and which saw mankind worshipping a Great Goddess, symbolised by the ancient Egyptian deity Isis. In Thelemite beliefs, this was followed by the Aeon of Osiris, a period that took place in the classical and mediaeval centuries, when humanity worshipped a singular male god, symbolised by the Egyptian god Osiris, and was therefore dominated by patriarchal values. And finally the third aeon, the Aeon of Horus, which was controlled by the child god, symbolised by Horus. In this new aeon, Thelemites believe that humanity will enter a time of self-realization and self-actualization.

Apollo (Crown) Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. Etymology Tetradrachm from the Illyro-Paeonian region, representing Apollo

Orphism (religion) Orphic mosaics were found in many late-Roman villas Orphism (more rarely Orphicism) (Ancient Greek: Ὀρφικά) is the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices[1] originating in the ancient Greek and the Hellenistic world,[2] as well as by the Thracians,[3] associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus, who descended into Hades and returned. Orphics also revered Persephone (who annually descended into Hades for a season and then returned) and Dionysus or Bacchus (who also descended into Hades and returned). Orpheus was said to have invented the Mysteries of Dionysus.[4] Poetry containing distinctly Orphic beliefs has been traced back to the 6th century BC[5] or at least 5th century BC, and graffiti of the 5th century BC apparently refers to "Orphics".[6] The main elements of Orphism differed from popular ancient Greek religion in the following ways:

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