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Greek mythology[edit] In Greek mythology, Tartarus is both a deity and a place in the underworld. In ancient Orphic sources and in the mystery schools, Tartarus is also the unbounded first-existing entity from which the Light and the cosmos are born. As for the place, Hesiod asserts that a bronze anvil falling from heaven would fall nine days before it reached the earth. Originally, Tartarus was used only to confine dangers to the gods of Olympus. According to Plato (c. 427 BC), Rhadamanthus, Aeacus and Minos were the judges of the dead and chose who went to Tartarus. Plato also proposes the concept that sinners were cast under the ground to be punished in accordance with their sins in the Myth of Er. There were a number of entrances to Tartarus in Greek mythology. Roman mythology[edit] Biblical Pseudepigrapha[edit] Tartarus also appears in sections of the Jewish Sibylline Oracles. New Testament[edit] Footnotes [1] 2:4 Greek Tartarus See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit] Related:  Random useful knowledge

Nephilim Etymology[edit] In the Hebrew Bible[edit] The term "Nephilim" occurs just twice in the Hebrew Bible, both in the Torah. The second is Numbers 13:32–33, where ten of the Twelve Spies report that they have seen fearsome giants in Canaan. The nature of the nephilim is complicated by the ambiguity of Genesis 6:4, which leaves it unclear whether they are the "sons of God" or their offspring who are the "mighty men of old, men of renown". Interpretations[edit] There are effectively two views[15] regarding the identity of the nephilim, which follow on from alternative views about the identity of the sons of God (Bənê hāʼĕlōhîm): Fallen angels[edit] Main article: Fallen angel Some Christian commentators have argued against this view,[21][22] citing Jesus's statement that angels do not marry.[23] Others believe that Jesus was only referring to angels in heaven.[24] Second Temple Judaism[edit] Descendants of Seth and Cain[edit] Arguments from culture and mythology[edit]

Eros Eros (/ˈɪərɒs/ or US /ˈɛrɒs/; Ancient Greek: Ἔρως, "Desire"), in Greek mythology, was the Greek god of love. His Roman counterpart was Cupid[2] ("desire"). Some myths make him a primordial god, while in other myths, he is the son of Aphrodite. Cult and depiction[edit] Eros appears in ancient Greek sources under several different guises. A cult of Eros existed in pre-classical Greece, but it was much less important than that of Aphrodite. Primordial god[edit] Homer does not mention Eros. Son of Aphrodite[edit] [Hera addresses Athena:] “We must have a word with Aphrodite. "Once, when Venus’ son [Cupid, aka Eros] was kissing her, his quiver dangling down, a jutting arrow, unbeknown, had grazed her breast. "Eros drove Dionysos mad for the girl [Aura] with the delicious wound of his arrow, then curving his wings flew lightly to Olympus. Eros and Psyche[edit] The story tells of the struggle for love and trust between Eros and Psyche. Eros in art[edit] See also[edit] References and sources[edit]

Sprite (creature) The word "sprite" is derived from the Latin "spiritus" (spirit). Variations on the term include "spright" (the origin of the adjective "sprightly", meaning "spirited" or "lively") and the Celtic "spriggan". The term is chiefly used in regard to elves and fairies in European folklore, and in modern English is rarely used in reference to spirits or other mythical creatures. In some elemental magics, the sprite is often believed to be the elemental of air (see also sylph). For the plant species, see Ceratopteris thalictroides (given an honourable name for its purpose in hydroculture.) A water sprite (also called a water fairy or water faery) is a general term for an elemental spirit associated with water, according to alchemist Paracelsus. In elemental classifications, water sprites should not be confused with other water creatures considered to be "corporeal beings" such as selkies and mermaids. Swedish Myths

Tarascan state The Tarascan state was a state in pre-Columbian Mexico, roughly covering the geographic area of the present-day Mexican state of Michoacán, parts of Jalisco, and Guanajuato. At the time of the Spanish conquest it was the second-largest state in Mesoamerica.[1] The state was founded in the early 14th century and lost its independence to the Spanish in 1530. In 1543 it officially became the governorship of Michoacán, from the Nahuatl name for the Tarascan state, Michoacán ("place of those who have fish"). The people of the Tarascan empire were mostly of Purépecha ethnic affiliation but also included other ethnic groups such as the Nahua, Otomi, Matlatzinca and Chichimec. The Tarascan state was contemporary with and an enemy of the Aztec Empire, against which it fought many wars. Due to its relative isolation within Mesoamerica, the Tarascan state had many cultural traits completely distinct from those of the Mesoamerican cultural group. Geography and lithic occupation[edit] Notes[edit]

Ogias the Giant The Book of Giants is an apocryphal Jewish book expanding a narrative in the Hebrew Bible. Its discovery at Qumran dates the text's creation to before the 2nd century BCE. Origin[edit] Sources[edit] Aramaic fragments, along with other fragments of the Book of Enoch, were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran: The Book of Giants (Dead Sea Scrolls) includes 4Q203, 1Q23, 2Q26, 4Q530-532, 6Q8.[1][2] In the version of the Book of Giants which was spread by the Manichaean religion, the book became well traveled and exists in Syriac, Greek, Persian, Sogdian, Uyghur, and Arabic, although each version is somewhat distorted, incorporating more local myths. The Manichean text. Content[edit] Ogias the Giant[edit] The Gelasian Decree mentions a Latin Book of Ogias the Giant which was identified with the Manichaean Book of Giants, an identification confirmed by evidence among the Parthian fragments of the Manichaean work.[5] References[edit] External links[edit]

Erebus In Greek literature the name Erebus is also used of a region of the Greek underworld where the dead pass immediately after dying, and is sometimes used interchangeably with Tartarus.[3][4][5][6][7] The perceived meaning of Erebus is "darkness"; the first recorded instance of it was "place of darkness between earth and Hades". Hebrew עֶרֶב (ˤerev) 'sunset, evening' is sometimes cited as a source.[3][8] However, an Indo-European origin, at least for the name Ἔρεβος itself, is more likely. The Roman writer Hyginus, in his Fabulae, described Erebus as the father of Geras, the god of old age.[10] References[edit] Notes Jump up ^ Ἔρεβος. Sources External links[edit] The Theoi Project, "Erebos"

Animism Specifically, animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system or cosmology of some indigenous tribal peoples,[5] especially prior to the development and/or infiltration of colonialism and organized religion.[6] Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives. The animistic perspective is so fundamental, mundane, everyday and taken-for-granted that most animistic indigenous people do not even have a word in their languages that corresponds to "animism" (or even "religion");[7] the term is an anthropological construct rather than one designated by the people themselves. Largely due to such ethnolinguistic and cultural discrepancies, opinion has differed on whether animism refers to a broad religious belief or to a full-fledged religion in its own right. Theories of animism[edit] Religion and animism[edit]

Tayasal (archaeological site) This article is about the IDAEH archaeological zone. For the Postclassic Itza capital, see Nojpetén. Tayasal is a Maya archaeological site located in present day Guatemala. Tayasal is a corruption of Tah Itza ("Place of the Itza"), a term originally used to refer to the core of the Itza territory in Petén.[1] The bulk of the site’s artifacts date to the Postclassic Period. As many as fifty burials and twelve caches have been recovered from Tayasal.[2] In the past there has been some debate among scholars about whether the location of the ethnohistoric Tayasal is actually the modern site of Topoxte, Guatemala.[3] The ethnohistory records Lake Peten Itza as the site of Tayasal, but Arlen Chase argued that archaeologically, Lake Yaxha, where Topoxte is located, fits the data better.[4] His arguments were contested by Grant Jones and Don and Prudence Rice, who argued that the Spanish accounts are clear as to its location.[5] Excavations at Tayasal revealed high levels of ceramic diversity.

Azazel Mount Azazel (Jabel Muntar) in the Judean Desert, to which the goat was sent, and from which it was pushed. Cliffs of Mount Azazel (Jabel Muntar). Azazel [ə-ˈzā-zəl] or Azazael or Azâzêl (Hebrew: עֲזָאזֵל, Azazel; Arabic: عَزازِيل, Azāzīl) is a term used three times in the Hebrew Bible, which has been traditionally understood either as a scapegoat, or in some traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, as the name of a fallen angel or demon. Hebrew Bible[edit] The term in the Bible is limited to three uses in Leviticus 16, where two he-goats were sacrificed to God and one of two he-goats got a lot, reading לַעֲזָאזֵל la-aza'zeyl; either "for absolute removal" or "for Azazel" and outcast in the desert as part of the Day of Atonement, for God is seen as speaking through lottery.[1] Leviticus 16:8–10 reads: Later rabbis, interpreting "la-azazel" as "azaz" (rugged), and "el" (strong), refer it to the rugged and rough mountain cliff from which the goat was cast down (..)[2][3][4] [edit] [edit]

Nyx Nyx (Greek: Νύξ, "Night")[1] – Roman (in Latin): Nox – is the Greek goddess (or personification) of the night. A shadowy figure, Nyx stood at or near the beginning of creation, and was the mother of other personified deities such as Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death). Her appearances are sparse in surviving mythology, but reveal her as a figure of exceptional power and beauty. She is found in the shadows of the world and only ever seen in glimpses. Mythology and literature[edit] Headline text[edit] Hesiod[edit] In his description of Tartarus, Hesiod locates there the home of Nyx,[5] and the homes of her children Hypnos and Thanatos.[6] Hesiod says further that Hemera (Day), who is Nyx's daughter, left Tartarus just as Nyx entered it; continuing cyclicly, when Hemera returned, Nyx left.[7] This mirrors the portrayal of Ratri (night) in the Rigveda, where she works in close cooperation but also tension with her sister Ushas (dawn). Homer[edit] Others[edit] Nyx in society[edit] Cults[edit]

12 dicas para escritores iniciantes por George R. R. Martin | Game of Thrones BR A época dessa entrevista em Novembro de 2013, George R.R. Martin esteve em Sydney no Opera House, para comentar mais uma vez sobre As Crônicas de Gelo e Fogo e aproveitou para dar algumas dicas para quem quer se aventurar pela escrita de fantasia, baseado em sua própria experiência. Mesclamos isso a algumas dicas tiradas da seção de perguntas frequentes do site oficial de Martin. Então abaixo seguem os doze mandamentos do Rei (olha a heresia) dos escritores de Fantasia da atualidade. George R. Ler e Escrever, sempre Eu acho que, a coisa mais importante para qualquer aspirante a escritor, é ler. Comece aos poucos Dada a realidade do mercado de ficção cientifica e fantasia atual, eu sugiro também que qualquer aspirante a escritor comece com histórias curtas, contos. Não há problema em pegar “emprestado” da HistóriaEmbora minha história seja de fantasia, é fortemente baseada em história medieval real. Montagem com parte do elenco principal da primeira temporada E então?

Tazumal The Maya ruins of Tazumal Tazumal (/täsuːˈm äl/) is a Pre-Columbian Maya archeological site in Chalchuapa, El Salvador. Tazumal is an architectural complex within the larger area of the ancient Mesoamerican city of Chalchuapa, in western El Salvador. The Tazumal group is located in the southern portion of the Chalchuapa archaeological zone.[1] Archaeologist Stanley Boggs excavated and restored the Tazumal complex during the 1940s and 1950s.[2] Archaeological investigations indicate that Tazumal was inhabited from the Classic period through to the Postclassic and that the site had links as far afield as central Mexico, the northern Yucatán Peninsula and lower Central America. Metal artefacts from the complex date to the 8th century AD and are among the earliest metal artefacts reported from Mesoamerica. Location[edit] History[edit] View towards the main pyramid B1-1, with Structure B1-2 on the right hand side Site description[edit] Structure B1-1[edit] Temple of the Columns[edit] Sculpture[edit]