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Gaia (Greek Mythology)

Gaia (Greek Mythology)
The Greek word γαῖα (transliterated as gaia) is a collateral form of γῆ[4] (gē, Doric γᾶ ga and probably δᾶ da)[5] meaning Earth,[6] a word of uncertain origin.[7] R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin.[8] In Mycenean Greek Ma-ka (trans. as Ma-ga, "Mother Gaia") also contains the root ga-.[9][10] According to Hesiod, Gaia conceived further offspring with Uranus, first the giant one-eyed Cyclopes: Brontes ("Thunder"), Steropes ("Lightning") and Arges ("Bright");[16] then the Hecatonchires: Cottus, Briareos and Gyges, each with a hundred arms and fifty heads.[17] As each of the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires were born, Uranus hid them in a secret place within Gaia, causing her great pain. Because Cronus had learned from Gaia and Uranus, that he was destined to be overthrown by his own child, Cronus swallowed each of the children born to him by his Titan sister Rhea. With Gaia's advice[21] Zeus defeated the Titans. In classical art Gaia was represented in one of two ways.

Apollo (Crown) Greek god Apollo[a] is one of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been recognized as a god of archery, music and dance, truth and prophecy, healing and diseases, the Sun and light, poetry, and more. One of the most important and complex of the Greek gods, he is the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin brother of Artemis, goddess of the hunt. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the kouros (ephebe, or a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all the gods. As the patron deity of Delphi (Apollo Pythios), Apollo is an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Apollo is an important pastoral deity, and was the patron of herdsmen and shepherds. Etymology Apollo, fresco from Pompeii, 1st century AD A Luwian etymology suggested for Apaliunas makes Apollo "The One of Entrapment", perhaps in the sense of "Hunter".[24] Greco-Roman epithets Sun

Demeter In ancient Greek religion and myth, Demeter (/diˈmiːtər/; Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the harvest, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Her cult titles include Sito (Σιτώ), "she of the Grain",[1] as the giver of food or grain[2] and Thesmophoros (θεσμός, thesmos: divine order, unwritten law; "phoros": bringer, bearer), "Law-Bringer," as a mark of the civilized existence of agricultural society.[3] Etymology[edit] Demeter's character as mother-goddess is identified in the second element of her name meter (μήτηρ) derived from Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr (mother).[11] In antiquity, different explanations were already proffered for the first element of her name. An alternative, Proto-Indo-European etymology comes through Potnia and Despoina; where Des- represents a derivative of PIE *dem (house, dome), and Demeter is "mother of the house" (from PIE *dems-méh₂tēr).[20] Agricultural deity[edit] Festivals and cults[edit] Myths[edit]

Tartarus Greek mythology[edit] In Greek mythology, Tartarus is both a deity and a place in the underworld. In ancient Orphic sources and in the mystery schools, Tartarus is also the unbounded first-existing entity from which the Light and the cosmos are born. As for the place, Hesiod asserts that a bronze anvil falling from heaven would fall nine days before it reached the earth. Originally, Tartarus was used only to confine dangers to the gods of Olympus. According to Plato (c. 427 BC), Rhadamanthus, Aeacus and Minos were the judges of the dead and chose who went to Tartarus. Plato also proposes the concept that sinners were cast under the ground to be punished in accordance with their sins in the Myth of Er. There were a number of entrances to Tartarus in Greek mythology. Roman mythology[edit] Biblical Pseudepigrapha[edit] Tartarus also appears in sections of the Jewish Sibylline Oracles. New Testament[edit] Footnotes [1] 2:4 Greek Tartarus See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit]

Iara (mythology) Iara was a beautiful young woman, sometimes described as having green hair and light skin, connected to a freshwater water body[clarification needed] (the Tupi word y did not have a distinct meaning, being used in general for any such place) who would sit on a rock by the river combing her hair or dozing under the sun. When she felt a man around she would start to sing gently to lure him. Once under the spell of the Iara a man would leave anything to live with her underwater forever, which was not necessarily a bad thing, as she was pretty and would cater for all needs of her lover for the rest of his life. Iaras are immortal (like the nymphs of Greek mythology), but her lovers do age and die, which means that they live most of eternity alone. The legend of the Iara was one of the usual explanations for the disappearance of those who ventured alone in the jungle. Iara (or Yara) is also a very popular female name in Brazil.

The Inner Earth & Realm of Aghartha Aghartha In The Hollow Earth! By Dr Joshua David Stone The biggest cover-up of all time is the fact that there is a civilization of people living in the center of Earth, whose civilization's name is known as "Aghartha". This may be hard for some of you to believe. I know it was for me at first, however, I now have an absolute knowingness of the truth of this. To begin with, the Buddhists, in their theology fervently believe in its existence. The famous Russian channel, Nicholas Roerich, who was a channel for the Ascended Master, El Morya, claimed that Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, was connected by a tunnel with the inner earth, Shamballa. The Indian epic, the Ramayana and the Bhagavad Gita are the two most famous texts of India. The first public scientific evidence occurred in 1947 when Rear Admiral Richard E. His plane was finally greeted by flying machines, the type he had never seen before. In January, 1956, Admiral Byrd led another expedition to the Antarctic and/or the South Pole.

Ancient Greece - history, mythology, art, culture and architectu Inanna Inanna (/ɪˈnænə/ or /ɪˈnɑːnə/; Cuneiform: 𒀭𒈹 DMUŠ3; Sumerian: Inanna; Akkadian: Ištar; Unicode: U+12239) is the Sumerian goddess of love, fertility, and warfare, and goddess of the E-Anna temple at the city of Uruk, her main centre. Part of the front of Inanna's temple from Uruk Origins[edit] Etymology[edit] Inanna's name derives from Lady of Heaven (Sumerian: nin-an-ak). Worship[edit] One version of the star symbol of Inanna/Ishtar Iconography[edit] Inanna's symbol is an eight-pointed star or a rosette.[10] She was associated with lions – even then a symbol of power – and was frequently depicted standing on the backs of two lionesses. Inanna as the star, Venus[edit] Inanna was associated with the celestial planet Venus. Inanna's Descent to the Underworld explains how Inanna is able to, unlike any other deity, descend into the netherworld and return to the heavens. Character[edit] Inanna is the goddess of love – but not marriage. Myths[edit] Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta[edit]

Eros Eros (/ˈɪərɒs/ or US /ˈɛrɒs/; Ancient Greek: Ἔρως, "Desire"), in Greek mythology, was the Greek god of love. His Roman counterpart was Cupid[2] ("desire"). Some myths make him a primordial god, while in other myths, he is the son of Aphrodite. Cult and depiction[edit] Eros appears in ancient Greek sources under several different guises. In the earliest sources (the cosmogonies, the earliest philosophers, and texts referring to the mystery religions), he is one of the primordial gods involved in the coming into being of the cosmos. A cult of Eros existed in pre-classical Greece, but it was much less important than that of Aphrodite. Primordial god[edit] Homer does not mention Eros. Son of Aphrodite[edit] [Hera addresses Athena:] “We must have a word with Aphrodite. "Once, when Venus’ son [Cupid, aka Eros] was kissing her, his quiver dangling down, a jutting arrow, unbeknown, had grazed her breast. Eros and Psyche[edit] In Greek mythology, Psyche was the deification of the human soul. Sources

Dharma Dharma ([dʱəɾmə]; Sanskrit: धर्म dharma, listen ; Pali: धम्म dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism.[8] There is no single word translation for dharma in western languages.[9] The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma is a derivation from the root dhṛ, which has a meaning of "to hold, maintain, keep". Etymology[edit] The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma is a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, maintain, keep",[note 3] and takes a meaning of "what is established or firm", and hence "law".[13] It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm" (in the literal sense of prods or poles). Definition[edit] Dharma root is "dhri", which means ‘to support, hold, or bear’. History[edit]

Synecdoche A synecdoche (/sɪˈnɛkdəkiː/, si-NEK-də-kee; from Greek synekdoche (συνεκδοχή), meaning "simultaneous understanding") is a figure of speech[1][2] in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something, or vice-versa.[3][4] An example is referring to workers as hired hands.[5][6] Similar figures of speech[edit] Synecdoche is a rhetorical trope and a type of figurative speech[7] similar to metonymy—a figure of speech in which a term that denotes one thing is used to refer to a related thing.[1] Indeed, synecdoche is sometimes considered a subclass of metonymy. It is more distantly related to other figures of speech, such as metaphor.[8] More rigorously, metonymy and synecdoche can be considered sub-species of metaphor, intending metaphor as a type of conceptual substitution (as Quintilian does in Institutio oratoria Book VIII). Etymology[edit] Use[edit] Synecdoche is often used as a type of personification, by attaching a human aspect to a non-human thing. Examples[edit]

Odyssée Scène de l’Odyssée, fresque romaine (fin du IIe siècle av. J.-C.) L’Odyssée (en grec ancien Ὀδύσσεια / Odýsseia) est une épopée grecque antique attribuée à l’aède Homère[note 1], qui l'aurait composée après l’Iliade, vers la fin du VIIIe siècle av. J.-C. L’Odyssée a inspiré un grand nombre d'œuvres littéraires et artistiques au cours des siècles, et le terme « odyssée » est devenu par antonomase un nom commun désignant un « récit de voyage plus ou moins mouvementé et rempli d'aventures singulières »[3]. Structure L’Odyssée raconte le retour d’Ulysse, roi d’Ithaque, dans son pays, après la guerre de Troie dont l’Iliade ne raconte qu'une petite partie. Invocation Le titre Odyssée (en grec ancien Ὀδυσσεία / Odysseía) est formé sur le nom grec d’Ulysse (Ὀδυσσεύς / Odysseús). Construction La construction du poème fait se succéder trois « moments » principaux : la Télémachie (chants I à IV) : Télémaque part demander des nouvelles de son père à Pylos et à Sparte, pour interroger Nestor et Ménélas.

Ishtar Ishtar (English pronunciation /ˈɪʃtɑːr/; Transliteration: DIŠTAR; Akkadian: 𒀭𒈹 ; Sumerian 𒀭𒌋𒁯) is the East Semitic Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, love, war, and sex.[1] She is the counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna, and is the cognate for the Northwest Semitic Aramean goddess Astarte. Characteristics[edit] Ishtar was the goddess of love, war, fertility, and sexuality. Ishtar was the daughter of Ninurta.[2] She was particularly worshipped in northern Mesopotamia, at the Assyrian cities of Nineveh, Ashur and Arbela (Erbil).[2] Besides the lions on her gate, her symbol is an eight-pointed star.[3] One type of depiction of Ishtar/Inanna Ishtar had many lovers; however, as Guirand notes, Descent into the underworld[edit] One of the most famous myths[5] about Ishtar describes her descent to the underworld. If thou openest not the gate to let me enter, I will break the door, I will wrench the lock, I will smash the door-posts, I will force the doors. In other media[edit]

Erebus In Greek literature the name Erebus is also used of a region of the Greek underworld where the dead pass immediately after dying, and is sometimes used interchangeably with Tartarus.[3][4][5][6][7] The perceived meaning of Erebus is "darkness"; the first recorded instance of it was "place of darkness between earth and Hades". Hebrew עֶרֶב (ˤerev) 'sunset, evening' is sometimes cited as a source.[3][8] However, an Indo-European origin, at least for the name Ἔρεβος itself, is more likely. The Roman writer Hyginus, in his Fabulae, described Erebus as the father of Geras, the god of old age.[10] References[edit] Notes Jump up ^ Ἔρεβος. Sources External links[edit] The Theoi Project, "Erebos"

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