home | 6th-15th centuries | 16-17th centuries | 18-19th centuries | 1901 to World War II Victors, Independence Movements and Cold War The United Nations – the founding, Roosevelt's hopes denied and the veto Victors against the Defeated – retributions, expropriations, occupations The Media and Tokyo Rose – aroused passions against a fictitious enemy Empire headed for Extinction – colonialism in Asia and Africa Cold War: 1945-49 – Stalin, Europe, the U.S. and revolution in China The Korean War – occupation, China intervenes, negotiations Cold War: 1953-60 – communism and the Eisenhower years Cold War: the Kennedy Years – from the Bay of Pigs to assassination Vietnam, 1964-75 – to the war's end, participant opinions and lessons End of the Cold War and the Soviet Union – from Brezhnev to Yeltsin Latin America Latin America Economic Overview, to the 1960s – population growth and underdeveloped resources Brazil from 1945 to the Overthrow of Goulart in 1964 – another military coup but a thriving economy
Extended StandardsHow pop culture helped win the Cold WarThe Bolshoi Ballet's Galina Ulanova in London in October 1956 receiving a bouquet of flowers from the Director-General of the BBC For many people, as our series shows, the great paradox of the Cold War was that it was at once utterly terrifying and strangely glamorous. One example tells a wider story. From Russia with Love (1963): with Sean Connery as James Bond and Daniela Bianchi as Soviet embassy clerk Tatiana Romanova Today Bond has become such a familiar personification of British style that it is easy to lose sight of his Cold War origins. As one of Bond’s biggest critics, the novelist and former spy John le Carré astutely remarked, the films promoted nothing so much as the "consumer goods ethic" – a central element of the economic miracle that had transformed everyday life in Britain during the 1950s and 1960s. READ: Telegraph writers pick their best Bond films The West’s cultural offensive was not, of course, confined to the cinema. GALLERY: The best Bond girls
Pop in the age of the atomic bombOn 11 October 1962, the Beatles' first single for EMI, Love Me Do, entered the UK charts. Four days later, the Cuban missile crisis began, when a US reconnaissance plane spotted Soviet missile bases in Cuba. In the days that followed, the world teetered on the brink of nuclear war. As a Soviet general later said, Earth was "minutes" away from "catastrophe". The Beatles' extraordinary breakthrough from that date onwards has been put down to a variety of factors, not the least the quality of their music. But among all that explosive positive energy, it's hard not to sense, somewhere in the background, a reaction to the missile crisis. The Cuban missile crisis was the nearest the world had come to nuclear destruction since 1945, when US atomic bombs fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The relationship between the atomic bomb and postwar popular culture is as intimate as it is complex. In the vacuum of 1945, American youth provided a beacon of hope and the ideal of the teenager took hold.
The Great Depression - Facts & SummaryHoover, a Republican who had formerly served as U.S. secretary of commerce, believed that government should not directly intervene in the economy, and that it did not have the responsibility to create jobs or provide economic relief for its citizens. In 1932, however, with the country mired in the depths of the Great Depression and some 15 million people (more than 20 percent of the U.S. population at the time) unemployed, Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt won an overwhelming victory in the presidential election. By Inauguration Day (March 4, 1933), every U.S. state had ordered all remaining banks to close at the end of the fourth wave of banking panics, and the U.S. Treasury didn’t have enough cash to pay all government workers. Roosevelt took immediate action to address the country’s economic woes, first announcing a four-day “bank holiday” during which all banks would close so that Congress could pass reform legislation and reopen those banks determined to be sound.
Civil Rights Movement - Black HistoryDuring Reconstruction, blacks took on leadership roles like never before. They held public office and sought legislative changes for equality and the right to vote. In 1868, the 14th Amendment to the Constitution gave blacks equal protection under the law. In 1870, the 15th Amendment granted blacks the right to vote. Still, many whites, especially those in the South, were unhappy that people they’d once enslaved were now on a more-or-less equal playing field. To marginalize blacks, keep them separate from whites and erase the progress they’d made during Reconstruction, “Jim Crow” laws were established in the South beginning in the late 19th century. Jim Crow laws weren’t adopted in northern states; however, blacks still experienced discrimination at their jobs or when they tried to buy a house or get an education. Moreover, southern segregation gained ground in 1896 when the U.S.