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Biofuel

Biofuel
A biofuel is a fuel that contains energy from geologically recent carbon fixation. These fuels are produced from living organisms. Examples of this carbon fixation occur in plants and microalgae. These fuels are made by a biomass conversion (biomass refers to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Liquid fuels for transportation[edit] Ethanol[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel

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UK joins 'super-microscope' project 10 March 2014Last updated at 21:00 ET By Pallab Ghosh Science correspondent, BBC News Super-microscope: The UK is to help build the European Spallation Source - a new facility in Sweden The UK government has allocated £290m for new international science projects. The Science Minister David Willetts will earmark £165m to join a project to build a "super-microscope" in Sweden Ethanol fermentation In ethanol fermentation, one glucose molecule breaks down into two pyruvates (1). The energy from this exothermic reaction is used to bind inorganic phosphates to ADP and convert NAD+ to NADH. The two pyruvates are then broken down into two acetaldehydes and give off two CO2 as a waste product (2). The two acetaldehydes are then converted to two ethanol by using the H- ions from NADH; converting NADH back into NAD+ (3). Alcoholic fermentation, also referred to as ethanol fermentation, is a biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products.

How Biomass Energy Works Biomass is a combination of organic and biological materials usually composed of both plants and animals. It is composed of stored energy derived from the sun, and can release a new source of energy when physical and chemical processes are applied to it. Most biomasses materials come from wood, trees, grasses, agricultural crops, garbage and other urban wastes. Human and animal wastes are sources for biomass energy too. Defence Science and Technology Organisation To achieve its mission, DSTO provides scientific and technical support to current defence operations, investigates future technologies for defence and national security applications, advises on the purchase and smart use of defence equipment, develops new defence capabilities, and enhances existing systems by improving performance and safety and reducing the cost of owning defence assets. The Chief Defence Scientist leads the DSTO. The position is supported by an independent Advisory Board with representatives from defence, industry, academia and the science community. DSTO has an annual budget of approximately $440 million and employs over 2500 staff, predominantly scientists, engineers, IT specialists and technicians. DSTO has establishments in all Australian states and the Australian Capital Territory with posted representatives in Washington, London and Tokyo.

Fermentation Fermentation in progress: Impurities formed by CO2 gas bubbles and fermenting material. Overview of ethanol fermentation. One glucose molecule breaks down into two pyruvates (1). The energy from this exothermic reaction is used to bind inorganic phosphates to ADP and convert NAD+ to NADH. The two pyruvates are then broken down into two Acetaldehyde and give off two CO2 as a waste product (2). The two Acetaldehydes are then converted to two ethanol by using the H+ ions from NADH; converting NADH back into NAD+ (3). Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass Speaking of resources, the world changes pace everyday. First there was evolution which took us from wood to steel to iron (and more), then development happened and took us to the stage that we are in now. Now we see that there are distinct shifts in policies which have taken us back to our roots and have been able to reacquaint us with the natural resources that we once used.

Paul Wild Observatory A number of major astronomical facilities are located at the Paul Wild Observatory near Narrabri, Australia, including: The observatory is named in honor of Australian radio astronomer Paul Wild. Two other astronomical facilities are located nearby (although not on the same site). They are the Narrabri Stellar Intensity Interferometer (now decommissioned) and the Bohema Creek Cosmic Ray Observatory. Coordinates: Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion also occurs naturally in some soils and in lake and oceanic basin sediments, where it is usually referred to as "anaerobic activity".[2][3] This is the source of marsh gas methane as discovered by Volta in 1776.[4][5] The digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials. Insoluble organic polymers, such as carbohydrates, are broken down to soluble derivatives that become available for other bacteria. Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. These bacteria convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with additional ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.

Biomass energy pros and cons in a nutshell Biomass energy is a renewable energy source derived from biological materials that are called biomass. As with all renewable energy sources biomass energy has its pros and cons. Biomass Fuels The most common sources of biomass are wood, waste of biological form (i.e. sawdust), animal manure, landfill gasses, biofuel crops (i.e corn) and garbage (Municipal Solid Waste). It should be noted that in the case of garbage and the waste to energy processes (i.e. burning municipal solid waste for the production of heat and/or electricity) it can only be considered renewable if the fuel used is purely of biological origin and does not contain any non-organic materials otherwise it cannot be considered sustainable.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the federal government agency for scientific research in Australia. It was founded in 1926 originally as the Advisory Council of Science and Industry. Research highlights include the invention of atomic absorption spectroscopy, development of the first commercially successful polymer banknote, the invention of the insect repellent in Aerogard and the introduction of a series of biological controls into Australia, such as the introduction of myxomatosis and rabbit calicivirus which causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease for the control of rabbit populations. CSIRO's research into ICT technologies has resulted in advances such as the Panoptic search engine[1] (now known as Funnelback) and Annodex.[2] Research groups and initiatives[edit] Employing over 6,600 staff, CSIRO maintains more than 50 sites across Australia and biological control research stations in France and Mexico.

Hydrolysis Hydrolysis (/haɪˈdrɒlɨsɪs/; from Greek hydro-, meaning "water", and lysis, meaning "separation") usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water. Where a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is termed saccharification. Generally, hydrolysis or saccharification is a step in the degradation of a substance. Types[edit] Usually hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule of water is added to a substance.

GCB BIOENERGY 14/06/16 Reconciling food security and bioenergy: priorities for action Abstract Understanding the complex interactions among food security, bioenergy sustainability, and resource management requires a focus on specific contextual problems and opportunities. The United Nations’ 2030 Sustainable Development Goals place a high priority on food and energy security; bioenergy plays an important role in achieving both goals. Effective food security programs begin by clearly defining the problem and asking, ‘What can be done to assist people at high risk?’ Simplistic global analyses, headlines, and cartoons that blame biofuels for food insecurity may reflect good intentions but mislead the public and policymakers because they obscure the main drivers of local food insecurity and ignore opportunities for bioenergy to contribute to solutions. Applying sustainability guidelines to bioenergy will help achieve near- and long-term goals to eradicate hunger.

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