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A biofuel is a fuel that contains energy from geologically recent carbon fixation. These fuels are produced from living organisms. Examples of this carbon fixation occur in plants and microalgae. These fuels are made by a biomass conversion (biomass refers to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Liquid fuels for transportation[edit] Ethanol[edit]

Natural Gas Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants, gases, and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in natural gas. Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame.[1] Natural gas is a hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide.[2] Natural gas is an energy source often used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas. Sources[edit]

How Biomass Energy Works Biomass is a combination of organic and biological materials usually composed of both plants and animals. It is composed of stored energy derived from the sun, and can release a new source of energy when physical and chemical processes are applied to it. Most biomasses materials come from wood, trees, grasses, agricultural crops, garbage and other urban wastes. • The most well known source of biomass energy is by burning of wood. • There is another simple way of how biomass energy works. • Agricultural crops like corn and sugarcane undergo the fermentation process to produce fuel like ethanol, which is used for trucks, cars and other means of transport. • Vegetable oils and animal fats can be converted to produce biodiesel which is also used in vehicles and other kinds of transportation. • Biomass energy also works by anaerobic digestion which involves the process of using microorganisms to break down biodegradable wastes and convert them into fuel.

Hydroelectricity Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010,[1] and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. History Museum Hydroelectric power plant ″Under the Town″ in Serbia, built in 1900.[3][4] Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. Pumped-storage

Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass Speaking of resources, the world changes pace everyday. First there was evolution which took us from wood to steel to iron (and more), then development happened and took us to the stage that we are in now. Now we see that there are distinct shifts in policies which have taken us back to our roots and have been able to reacquaint us with the natural resources that we once used. One of those resources was biomass. This article will try to give you an in-depth review on the advantages and disadvantages of biomass energy. What is Biomass Biomass is biological matter that is acquired from plants and animals and has large amounts of carbon as well as traces of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, alkaline earth and heavy metals in it. The main sources that are used to formulate biomass are wood, alcohol fuels and solid waste. Advantages of Biomass Uses Renewable Resources: Biomass is derived from sources like plants and animals, in short, sources which are replaceable. Disadvantages of Biomass

Types of Alternative Energy Biomass energy pros and cons in a nutshell | Renewable Green Energy Power Biomass energy is a renewable energy source derived from biological materials that are called biomass. As with all renewable energy sources biomass energy has its pros and cons. Biomass Fuels The most common sources of biomass are wood, waste of biological form (i.e. sawdust), animal manure, landfill gasses, biofuel crops (i.e corn) and garbage (Municipal Solid Waste). In effect biomass energy results from sun. Biomass energy is one of the first forms of energy used by humans. Picture 1 Biomass Energy Pros Renewable energy. Biomass Energy Cons Harmful emissions Even though biomass energy production is carbon neutral it involves emission of other gases that can be harmuful to the environment. Biomass energy is renewable and can be sustainable if we use it wisely. About the Author Peter is a data analyst with over a decade of experience in environmental data analysis. Contact the author

Hydrogen Hydrogen gas was first artificially produced in the early 16th century, via the mixing of metals with acids. In 1766–81, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize that hydrogen gas was a discrete substance,[8] and that it produces water when burned, a property which later gave it its name: in Greek, hydrogen means "water-former". Industrial production is mainly from the steam reforming of natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive hydrogen production methods like the electrolysis of water.[9] Most hydrogen is employed near its production site, with the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. Hydrogen is a concern in metallurgy as it can embrittle many metals,[10] complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks.[11] Properties Combustion 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) + 572 kJ (286 kJ/mol)[note 2] H2 reacts with every oxidizing element. Electron energy levels Main article: Hydrogen atom Phases

Geothermal Enegry From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation. Worldwide, 11,400 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries in 2012.[5] An additional 28 gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications in 2010.[6] Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly,[7] but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. History

Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy usually means the part of the energy of an atomic nucleus, which can be released by fusion or fission or radioactive decay. Nuclear energy may also refer to: Tidal Power Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Historically, tide mills have been used, both in Europe and on the Atlantic coast of North America. The world's first large-scale tidal power plant is the Rance Tidal Power Station in France, which became operational in 1966. Generation of tidal energy[edit] Variation of tides over a day Tidal power is taken from the Earth's oceanic tides; tidal forces are periodic variations in gravitational attraction exerted by celestial bodies. Tidal power is the only technology that draws on energy inherent in the orbital characteristics of the Earth–Moon system, and to a lesser extent in the Earth–Sun system. A tidal generator converts the energy of tidal flows into electricity. Generating methods[edit]

Rain The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts. If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) which can organize into narrow rainbands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation which forces moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall along the sides of mountains. The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Rain is also known or suspected on other planets, where it may be composed of methane, neon, sulfuric acid or even iron rather than water. Formation Water-saturated air Coalescence and fragmentation The shape of rain drops depend upon their size Droplet size distribution and per unit volume of space is .

Renewable Energy Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat.[2] Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[3] About 16% of global final energy consumption presently comes from renewable resources, with 10% [4] of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) account for another 3% and are growing rapidly.[5] At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Overview