Paul Meier Dialect Services - diphthongs - triphthongs - American English - British English - British dialects - IPA Logiciels libres en orthophonie History of the French Language History of the French Language One cannot speak about the origins of the French language without addressing the topic of Romance languages, the family of language to which French belongs. Even though Romance languages, share certain qualities not found in contemporary Latin that is taught today, it is believed that Latin is the father of the Romance group of languages. Frankish Influence The Franks of Germany conquered Gaul about 400 years later, giving the area the name France; their linguistic influence is seen in the approximately 1,000 Frank words and the use of dipthongs and nasal vowels seen in the French language. Traces of Danish 400 years after the Frankish occupation, Northern France was invaded by Danish Vikings, and there are about 90 words in French left by the Danish. Other European Contributions Greek, Spanish, Italian, and more Latin vocabulary were also introduced into the French language during the time of the Renaissance in Europe. Dissemination of Francien
The sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet | Antimoon.com © Tomasz P. Szynalski, Antimoon.com This chart contains all the sounds (phonemes) used in the English language. The symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), as used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries for English learners — that is, in A. To print the chart, use the printable PDF version. Does this chart list all the sounds that you can hear in British and American English? No. For example, this page does not list the regular t (heard in this pronunciation of letter) and the flap t (heard in this one) with separate symbols. So this page actually lists phonemes (groups of sounds), not individual sounds. Take the phoneme p in the above chart. Typing the phonetic symbols You won’t find phonetic symbols on your computer’s keyboard. IPA fonts To type IPA symbols on your computer, you need to use an IPA-enabled font. However, in many (most?) You can use my free IPA phonetic keyboard at ipa.typeit.org. Learning to pronounce the sounds
International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)[note 1] is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of oral language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators, and translators. History Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. Extensions to the IPA for speech pathology were created in 1990 and officially adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994. Description A chart of the full International Phonetic Alphabet, expanded and re-organized from the official chart. Letterforms The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. Symbols and sounds Brackets and phonemes Other conventions are less commonly seen:
Paul Meier Dialect Services - IPA charts - dialects - dialect books - phonetics - IPA - phonetics - vowels (If unavailable here, please go to Professor Armstrong’s site, where you will find them duplicated.) The following interactive charts of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) were designed by Eric Armstrong of York University, Toronto, Canada; and voiced by Paul Meier, of the University of Kansas, in Lawrence, Kansas, USA. They are provided as an aid to students of dialects and phonetics. If you are studying dialects with Paul Meier Dialect Services books or booklets, and want to hear one of the “signature sounds” in isolation, or in comparison with other sounds, you may do so using the charts here.
Méthode phonétique et gestuelle de Suzanne Borel-Maisonny Sommaire Les gestes associés aux sons Gestes associés aux sons, selon la méthode de Suzanne BOREL-MAISONNY ("Langage oral et écrit", Delachaux et Niestlé, 1985) Présentation de la méthode La méthode Borel-Maisonny est une méthode d'apprentissage de la lecture. A l'origine, la méthode Borel-Maisonny est un ensemble de gestes ayant pour but de faciliter l'entrée dans le langage. La méthode Borel-Maisonny utilise le canal visuel. Exemple : Il y a un geste pour le son O . Ces gestes permettent de fixer rapidement la mémoire des formes graphiques et l'abstraction qui doit en être faite relativement au son. L'apprentissage de la lecture se fait en plusieurs étapes. La conscience de la position articulatoire est pour Suzanne Borel-Maisonny une condition sine qua non à l'émission d'un phonème. Le geste permet aussi de travailler la tension, l'intensité et la durée du phonème. Le geste, en outre, est très utile chez les enfants présentant des troubles de mémorisation. Des livres sur la méthode
History of French Language Une Histoire de la langue française @ Globe-Gate The present site is not meant to serve as a History of the French Language textbook. A number of the nearly 100 links may seem extraneous to traditional historical linguists; some of them show a political bias, and some do not bring the accuracy of a Mildred Pope to the task. Stages and Historical Landmarks Acte juridique, écrit en ancien français (1373) Avenir de la langue française Brève Histoire de l'Argot Français La Cantilène de Sainte Eulalie (first proto-French literary text) Nina Catach, "Les dictionnaires de l'Académie française"(beaucoup sur l'histoire de la langue) Changements et tradition - Le Chant et l'évolution phonétique Complément de la préface ou coup d'oeil sur l'histoire de la langue française (préface du Littré) Comment, en 1911, Emile Faguet voyait la crise du français Comment s'est construite la langue français [une histoire de la langue] Les Débuts de la lexicographie française D. Gloses de Reichenau (8e siècle) Lingua Gallica
English to French, Italian, German & Spanish Dictionary - WordReference.com English language, alphabet and pronunciation English is a West Germanic language related to Scots, Dutch, Frisian and German. with a significant amount of vocabulary from Old Norse, Norman French, Latin and Greek, and loanwords from many other languages. Approximately 341 million people speak English as a native language and a further 267 million speak it as a second language in over 104 countries including the UK, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, and the Cook Islands. A brief history of English Old English English evolved from the Germanic languages brought to Britain by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and other Germanic tribes from about the 5th Century AD. English acquired vocabulary from Old Norse after Norsemen starting settling in parts of Britain, particularly in the north and east, from the 9th century. Key