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Tragedy of the commons

Tragedy of the commons
The tragedy of the commons concept is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation, and sociology. However the concept, as originally developed, has also received criticism for not taking into account the many other factors operating to enforce or agree on regulation in this scenario. Lloyd's pamphlet[edit] In 1833, the English economist William Forster Lloyd published a pamphlet which included an example of herders sharing a common parcel of land on which they are each entitled to let their cows graze. In English villages, shepherds had sometimes grazed their sheep in common areas, and sheep ate grass more severely than cows. Garrett Hardin's article[edit] [edit] As a metaphor, the tragedy of the commons should not be taken too literally.

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Social trap Social trap is a term used by psychologists to describe a situation in which a group of people act to obtain short-term individual gains, which in the long run leads to a loss for the group as a whole. Examples of social traps include overfishing, energy "brownout" and "blackout" power outages during periods of extreme temperatures, the overgrazing of cattle on the Sahelian Desert, and the destruction of the rainforest by logging interests and agriculture.[citation needed] Origin of the concept[edit] The application of behavioral psychology terms to behaviors in the tragedy of the commons led to the realization that the same short-term/long-term cause-effect relationship also applied to other human traps, in addition to the exploitation of commonly held resources. Platt et al. also introduced the terms social fence and individual trap.

List of countries by sex ratio Map indicating the human sex ratio by country. Sex ratio by country for total population. Red represents more women, blue more men than the world average of 1.01 males/female. Sex ratio by country for population aged below 15. Red represents more women, blue more men than the world average of 1.06 males/female. Resource Stewardship The concept of resources has been applied in diverse realms, including with respect to economics, biology, computer science, management, and human resources, and is linked to the concepts of competition, sustainability, conservation, and stewardship. In application within human society, commercial or non-commercial factors require resource allocation through resource management. Biological resources[edit] Economic versus biological resources[edit] Computer resources[edit]

ScienceGuide: Transition or hell? 22 januari 2014 - The ‘Science in Transition-debate’ continues. At Maastricht University and elsewhere in academia. Are solutions dawning? Choice Choice consists of a mental decision, of judging the merits of multiple options and selecting one or more of them. While a choice can be made between imagined options ("what would I do if ...?"), often a choice is made between real options and followed by the corresponding action. For example, a route for a journey is chosen based on the preference of arriving at a given destination as soon as possible. The preferred (and therefore chosen) route is then derived from information about how long each of the possible routes take.

Reciprocal altruism Diagram showing reciprocal altruism In evolutionary biology, reciprocal altruism is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time. The concept was initially developed by Robert Trivers to explain the evolution of cooperation as instances of mutually altruistic acts. The concept is close to the strategy of "tit for tat" used in game theory. Surveys and Data Collection Systems Homepage Some NCHS data systems and surveys are ongoing annual systems while others are conducted periodically. There are four major data collection programs at NCHS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is NCHS' most in-depth and logistically complex survey, operating out of mobile examination centers that travel to randomly selected sites throughout the country to assess the health and nutritional status of Americans. This survey combines personal interviews with standardized physical examinations, diagnostic procedures, and laboratory tests to obtain information about diagnosed and undiagnosed conditions; growth and development, including overweight and obesity; diet and nutrition; risk factors; and environmental exposures. The National Health Care Surveys provide information about the organizations and providers that supply health care, the services they render, and the patients they serve.

Demurrage (currency) Demurrage is the cost associated with owning or holding currency over a given period. It is sometimes referred to as a carrying cost of money. For commodity money such as gold, demurrage is the cost of storing and securing the gold. For paper currency, it takes the form of a periodic tax, such as a stamp tax, on currency holdings. Demurrage is sometimes cited as economically advantageous, usually in the context of complementary currency systems. Science 2.0 consultation & status report Science in Transition dinsdag 22 juli 2014 The European Commission opened a public consultation about Science 2.0 under the heading ‘Science in Transition’. The goal of the consultation is to better understand the full societal potential of ‘Science 2.0′ as well as the desirability of any possible policy action. “‘Science 2.0’ describes the on-going evolution in the modus operandi of doing research and organising science.

Utility Economic definitions[edit] In economics, utility is a representation of preferences over some set of goods and services. Preferences have a (continuous) utility representation so long as they are transitive, complete, and continuous.

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