Tragedy of the commons
The tragedy of the commons concept is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation, and sociology. However the concept, as originally developed, has also received criticism for not taking into account the many other factors operating to enforce or agree on regulation in this scenario. Lloyd's pamphlet In 1833, the English economist William Forster Lloyd published a pamphlet which included an example of herders sharing a common parcel of land on which they are each entitled to let their cows graze. In English villages, shepherds had sometimes grazed their sheep in common areas, and sheep ate grass more severely than cows. Garrett Hardin's article  As a metaphor, the tragedy of the commons should not be taken too literally.
Related: Choice Theory
• Earth Charter - The New World Religion
• Finance of replenishment & stewardhip
• Science in Transition - Netherlands
• Book Review
Related: Commons - Biens Communs - Bens comuns - Bienes comunes