Celtic mythology Overview Though the Celtic world at its apex covered much of western and central Europe, it was not politically unified nor was there any substantial central source of cultural influence or homogeneity; as a result, there was a great deal of variation in local practices of Celtic religion (although certain motifs, for example the god Lugh, appear to have diffused throughout the Celtic world). Inscriptions of more than three hundred deities, often equated with their Roman counterparts, have survived, but of these most appear to have been genii locorum, local or tribal gods, and few were widely worshipped. However, from what has survived of Celtic mythology, it is possible to discern commonalities which hint at a more unified pantheon than is often given credit. Celtic mythology is found in a number of distinct, if related, subgroups, largely corresponding to the branches of the Celtic languages: Historical sources Irish mythology Cuchulainn carries Ferdiad across the river
Eight Immortals - encyclopedia article about Eight Immortals. The Eight Immortals (Chinese: 八仙; pinyin: Bāxiān; Wade–Giles: Pa¹hsien¹) are a group of legendary xian ("immortals; transcendents; saints") in Chinese mythology. Each Immortal's power can be transferred to a power tool (法器) that can bestow life or destroy evil. Together, these eight tools are called the "Covert Eight Immortals" (暗八仙 àn ~). The Immortals are: For their names in Chinese characters and Wade-Giles, see the individual pages in the list above. In literature before the 1970s, they were sometimes translated as the Eight Genies. In art The tradition of depicting humans who have become immortals is an ancient practice in Chinese art, and when religious Taoism gained popularity, it quickly picked up this tradition with its own immortals. The Eight Immortals are considered to be signs of prosperity and longevity, so they are popular themes in ancient and medieval art. The artwork of the Eight Immortals is not limited to paintings or other visual arts. In literature
Japanese mythology Japanese myths, as generally recognized in the mainstream today, are based on the Kojiki, the Nihon Shoki, and some complementary books. The Kojiki, or "Record of Ancient Matters", is the oldest surviving account of Japan's myths, legends and history. The Shintōshū describes the origins of Japanese deities from a Buddhist perspective, while the Hotsuma Tsutae records a substantially different version of the mythology. One notable feature of Japanese mythology is its explanation of the origin of the imperial family which has been used historically to assign godhood to the imperial line. Note: Japanese is not transliterated consistently across all sources, see: #Spelling of proper nouns Creation myth In the Japanese creation myth, the first deities which came into existence, appearing at the time of the creation of the universe, are collectively called Kotoamatsukami. Kuniumi and Kamiumi From their union were born the Ōyashima, or the eight great islands of Japan:
Ancient Egyptian religion Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world. The beliefs that these myths express are an important part of ancient Egyptian religion. Myths appear frequently in Egyptian writings and art, particularly in short stories and in religious material such as hymns, ritual texts, funerary texts, and temple decoration. These sources rarely contain a complete account of a myth and often describe only brief fragments. The details of these sacred events differ greatly from one text to another and often seem contradictory. Mythology profoundly influenced Egyptian culture. Origins The development of Egyptian myth is difficult to trace. Another possible source for mythology is ritual. In private rituals, which are often called "magical", the myth and the ritual are particularly closely tied. Definition and scope Content and meaning Sources Religious sources
Pollux is the brighter of two Twin stars | Brightest Stars Pollux, otherwise known as Beta Geminorum, is the 17th brightest star in the sky, prominent in evening skies from late fall through spring each year. It is ideally placed for viewing in March, when you’ll find this star highest in the sky during the evening hours as seen from around the globe. Follow the links below to learn more about the star Pollux in the constellation Gemini. How to see the star Pollux. Pollux science. History and mythology of Pollux. The Geminid meteors, which happen every year in December, radiate from near stars Castor and Pollux in Gemini. Pollux. How to see the star Pollux. However, there are plenty of bright stars in this general area of the sky. Pollux is a yellowish color, while Castor is white with perhaps a tinge of pale blue. Pollux is opposite the sun (opposition) on about January 15. From central Alaska, northern Canada and parts of Scandinavia northward, Pollux is circumpolar. Pollux science. Castor and Pollux, the Gemini twins of Greek mythology
Mesopotamian religion The god Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices followed by the Sumerian and East Semitic Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian and later migrant Arameans and Chaldeans, living in Mesopotamia (a region encompassing modern Iraq, Kuwait, southeast Turkey and northeast Syria) that dominated the region for a period of 4200 years from the fourth millennium BCE throughout Mesopotamia to approximately the 10th century CE in Assyria. Mesopotamian polytheism was the only religion in ancient Mesopotamia for thousands of years before entering a period of gradual decline beginning between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE. Reconstruction As with most dead religions, many aspects of the common practices and intricacies of the doctrine have been lost and forgotten over time. History Overview map of ancient Mesopotamia. Akkadian names first appear in king lists of these states circa 2800 BCE. Religion in the Neo-Assyrian Empire "Enlil!
Mythology Some (recent) approaches have rejected a conflict between the value of myth and rational thought, often viewing myths, rather than being merely inaccurate historical accounts, as expressions for understanding general psychological, cultural or societal truths. Etymology The English term mythology predates the word myth by centuries. It appeared in the 15th century, borrowed whole from Middle French mythologie. Terminology Origins Euhemerism Allegory Some theories propose that myths began as allegories. Personification Some thinkers believe that myths resulted from the personification of inanimate objects and forces. Myth-ritual theory Functions of myth Mircea Eliade argued that one of the foremost functions of myth is to establish models for behavior and that myths may also provide a religious experience. Joseph Campbell writes: "In the long view of the history of mankind, four essential functions of mythology can be discerned. Lists
Gemini In mythology the Twins were involved in cattle theft, it was during a dispute over the division of spoils of a cattle raid with their cousins that Castor met his death. Pollux was granted immortality by Zeus, but he persuaded Zeus to allow him to share the gift with Castor. As a result, the two spend alternate days on Olympus (as gods) and in Hades (as deceased mortals) . The stars Castor and Pollux are never above the horizon at the same time. The Gemini twins, Castor and Polydeukes (Pollux), are the Greek Dioscuri (Dioskouroi, from dios, god, + kouroi, boys, the sons of Dios, God, or the 'sons of Zeus', from Greek -kouros, a growing boy). For the mythology of the Dioskouroi see The word 'Gemini' has few known relatives and comes from the Indo-European root *yem- 'To pair'. Klein sees the word Gemini as a likely relative of Indic Yama and his sister Yami who are opposite-sex twins: to share half their days in Heaven and half in Hades.
Canaanite religion Canaanite religion is the name for the group of Ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era. Canaanite religion was polytheistic, and in some cases monolatristic. Beliefs Pantheon Ba'al with raised arm, 14th-12th century BC, found at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit), Louvre A great number of deities were worshiped by the followers of the Canaanite religion; this is a partial listing: Afterlife; Cult of the Dead Cosmology So far, none of the inscribed tablets found in 1929 in the Canaanite city of Ugarit (destroyed ca. 1200 BC) has revealed a cosmology. From the union of El Elyon and his consort were born Uranus (Pronounced Oo(as in room)-ran-aws) and Ge (Pronounced Yee), Greek names for the "Heaven" and the "Earth". Mythology History The Canaanites Some[who?] Influences Contact with other areas Hebrew Bible Sources
Fengshen Yanyi Fengshen Yanyi, also known as Fengshen Bang, or translated as The Investiture of the Gods, is a 16th-century Chinese novel and one of the major vernacular Chinese works in the shenmo genre written during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). Consisting of 100 chapters, it was first published in book form around the 1550s. Plot The novel is a romanticised retelling of the overthrow of King Zhou, the last ruler of the Shang Dynasty, by King Wu, who would establish the Zhou Dynasty in place of Shang. Bewitched by his concubine Daji, who is actually a vixen spirit in disguise as a beautiful woman, King Zhou of Shang oppresses his people and persecutes those who oppose him, including his own subjects who dare to speak up to him. Some well-known anecdotes In the novel, there are many stories (altogether 100 stories) in which many supernatural beings came to Earth and changed the fate of everything with their magical powers. Nüwa and King Zhou Daji and Boyi Kao See also
Yin and Yang in Chinese Mythology Nuada Airgetlám In Irish mythology, Nuada or Nuadu (modern spelling: Nuadha), known by the epithet Airgetlám (modern spelling: Airgeadlámh, meaning "silver hand/arm"), was the first king of the Tuatha Dé Danann. He is cognate with the Gaulish and British god Nodens. His Welsh equivalent is Nudd or Lludd Llaw Eraint. Description Nuada was king of the Tuatha Dé Danann for seven years before they came to Ireland. Bres, aided by the Fomorian Balor of the Evil Eye, attempted to retake the kingship by force, and war and continued oppression followed. Nuada's great sword was one of the Four Treasures of the Tuatha Dé Danann, brought from one of their four great cities. Legacy Mythological parallels Etymology The name Nuada probably derives from a Celtic stem *noudont- or *noudent-, which J. References