Indian removal Early in the 19th century, while the rapidly-growing United States expanded into the lower South, white settlers faced what they considered an obstacle. This area was home to the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations. These Indian nations, in the view of the settlers and many other white Americans, were standing in the way of progress. Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, was a forceful proponent of Indian removal. From 1814 to 1824, Jackson was instrumental in negotiating nine out of eleven treaties which divested the southern tribes of their eastern lands in exchange for lands in the west. In 1823 the Supreme Court handed down a decision which stated that Indians could occupy lands within the United States, but could not hold title to those lands. Although the five Indian nations had made earlier attempts at resistance, many of their strategies were non-violent. The Cherokee used legal means in their attempt to safeguard their rights. previous | next
Tecumseh - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society Tecumseh, meaning Shooting Star, was born in 1768 near Chillicothe, Ohio to the Shawnee tribe; specifically he was the son of the reigning Chief, Pukeshinwau. Throughout his childhood Tecumseh experienced many malevolent, violent expansions by the United States which would later sustain his hatred towards the United States. Multiple times during his youth U.S militia would intersect whatever land the Shawnees were currently occupying. In many cases the Americans would set two tribes against one another through treaties with one party representing the land of the other. For example, during the Treaty of Fort Stanwix the Iroquois tribe claimed ownership to all of Ohio lands therefore they deemed it acceptable to sell the Shawnee territory to America in exchange for money. Tecumseh's first chances to prove himself as a warrior came during the primary attempts of tribal alliance during the Pan-Indian Movement (1783-1795). See Also References Hurt, R.
Fight the Power: 100 Heroes of Native Resistance, Part 1 There were many Native heroes and many who resisted; here are a few from the 1700s and 1800s: Dragging Canoe, born around 1738, was a Cherokee war chief. The first battle he fought in was during the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759-1761), and that earned him the reputation of being a strong opponent against encroachment. He then led the Cherokee against white settlers in North Carolina with Abraham of Chilowee in 1776. During the American Revolution his forces were often joined by Upper Muskogee, Chickasaw, Shawnee, Indians from other nations, British Loyalists, French and Spanish agents. Dragging Canoe was a prominent Cherokee war chief. Tecumseh, born in 1768, was a Shawnee leader who not only resisted, he tried to unite all Native Americans so they could defend themselves against the growing United States. Tecumseh, a Shawnee leader, tried to united all Natives against the growing United States. A bronze bust of Cochise by Betty Butts is at Fort Bowie National Historic Site in Arizona.
Ohio History Central - An Online Encyclopedia of Ohio History - Ohio Historical Society Black Hawk War of 1832 By James Lewis, Ph.D. On April 5, 1832, a band of roughly one thousand Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo men, women, and children crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois near the mouth of the Iowa River. They moved north along the eastern bank of the river and then turned to the northeast along the Rock River. At the mouth of the Rock, they passed the remains of Saukenuk. In the eyes of most contemporaries, whether Native American or white, the leader of this mixed band was Black Hawk, a sixty-five-year-old Sauk warrior. The American Revolution American Indians and the American Revolution by Collin G. Calloway The Declaration of Independence accused King George III of unleashing "merciless Indian Savages" against innocent men, women, and children. Some Indian tribes went to war early. The Revolution split the Iroquois Confederacy. In the Ohio country Guyashuta of the Senecas, Cornstalk of the Shawnees, and White Eyes of the Delawares worked hard to steer a neutral course in the early years of the war. In 1783, under the terms of the Peace of Paris, without regard to its Indian allies, Britain handed over to the new United States all its territory east of the Mississippi, south of the Great Lakes, and north of Florida. Indians fought in the Revolution for Indian liberties and Indian homelands, not for the British empire. To learn more: Colin G. Barbara Graymont, The Iroquois in the American Revolution (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1972). < back to story listing
Lewis and Clark . Native Americans While Lewis and Clark were the first Americans to see much of what would become the western United States, those same lands had long been occupied by native peoples. Over the course of the expedition, the Corps of Discovery would come into contact with nearly 50 Native American tribes. Quickly, the captains learned how many different definitions there really were for the word “Indian.” The Mandans lived in earth lodges, farmed corn and were amenable to trade with America. The Meeting Ceremony Over the course of the expedition, Lewis and Clark developed a ritual that they used when meeting a tribe for the first time. A Selection of Tribes The tribes listed in Native Americans represent the Indians who had the most significant interactions about Lewis and Clark.
Massachusetts Historical Society, an Independent Research Library Founded in 1791 abama Department of Archives and History, Using Primary Sources in the Classroom: Creek Indian War, 1813-1814 Unit In the early part of the sixteenth century, white explorers who visited the territory now forming the southeastern United States found it occupied by tribes of American Indians who had lived there for centuries. The Creek, Cherokee, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Indians saw the land they inhabited become an object of desire for the visitors. Inevitably, this interest in the southeastern Indian land caused contention, conflict, and the eventual forced removal of the tribes to Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. As white settlers began to move into the region at the start of the nineteenth century, the Creeks became increasingly hostile. Many did not wish to adopt the ways of whites as government agents urged them to do under a new Indian policy instituted by President George Washington. As white population increased, the Creeks began to divide among themselves, into those who held more traditional views and those who were more assimilated through contact with whites. 1. 2. 1.
The War for Independence Through Seneca Eyes: Mary Jemison Views the Revolution, 1775-79 The American Revolution divided Indian communities as well as Euro-American ones. Captured at the age of fifteen along the Pennsylvania frontier and adopted and integrated into a Seneca community, Mary Jemison watched the war through the eyes of a wife and mother. The Iroquois attempted to remain neutral in the conflict, and Jemison watched tribal leaders return from a meeting with Patriot colonists at German Flats, secure in their belief that Indian neutrality would be respected. Our Indians obeyed the call, and the council was holden, at which the pipe of peace was smoked, and a treaty made, in which the Six Nations solemnly agreed that if a war should eventually break out, they would not take up arms on either side; but that they would observe a strict neutrality. In May following, our Indians were in their first battle with the Americans; but at what place I am unable to determine. "Brother, you have merited death! "Brother! Source: James E.