Indian removal Early in the 19th century, while the rapidly-growing United States expanded into the lower South, white settlers faced what they considered an obstacle. This area was home to the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations. These Indian nations, in the view of the settlers and many other white Americans, were standing in the way of progress. Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, was a forceful proponent of Indian removal. From 1814 to 1824, Jackson was instrumental in negotiating nine out of eleven treaties which divested the southern tribes of their eastern lands in exchange for lands in the west. In 1823 the Supreme Court handed down a decision which stated that Indians could occupy lands within the United States, but could not hold title to those lands. Although the five Indian nations had made earlier attempts at resistance, many of their strategies were non-violent. The Cherokee used legal means in their attempt to safeguard their rights. previous | next
The American Revolution American Indians and the American Revolution by Collin G. Calloway The Declaration of Independence accused King George III of unleashing "merciless Indian Savages" against innocent men, women, and children. Some Indian tribes went to war early. The Revolution split the Iroquois Confederacy. In the Ohio country Guyashuta of the Senecas, Cornstalk of the Shawnees, and White Eyes of the Delawares worked hard to steer a neutral course in the early years of the war. In 1783, under the terms of the Peace of Paris, without regard to its Indian allies, Britain handed over to the new United States all its territory east of the Mississippi, south of the Great Lakes, and north of Florida. Indians fought in the Revolution for Indian liberties and Indian homelands, not for the British empire. To learn more: Colin G. Barbara Graymont, The Iroquois in the American Revolution (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1972). < back to story listing
Fight the Power: 100 Heroes of Native Resistance, Part 1 There were many Native heroes and many who resisted; here are a few from the 1700s and 1800s: Dragging Canoe, born around 1738, was a Cherokee war chief. The first battle he fought in was during the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759-1761), and that earned him the reputation of being a strong opponent against encroachment. He then led the Cherokee against white settlers in North Carolina with Abraham of Chilowee in 1776. During the American Revolution his forces were often joined by Upper Muskogee, Chickasaw, Shawnee, Indians from other nations, British Loyalists, French and Spanish agents. Dragging Canoe was a prominent Cherokee war chief. Tecumseh, born in 1768, was a Shawnee leader who not only resisted, he tried to unite all Native Americans so they could defend themselves against the growing United States. Tecumseh, a Shawnee leader, tried to united all Natives against the growing United States. A bronze bust of Cochise by Betty Butts is at Fort Bowie National Historic Site in Arizona.
Pueblo Architecture Black Hawk War of 1832 By James Lewis, Ph.D. On April 5, 1832, a band of roughly one thousand Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo men, women, and children crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois near the mouth of the Iowa River. They moved north along the eastern bank of the river and then turned to the northeast along the Rock River. At the mouth of the Rock, they passed the remains of Saukenuk. In the eyes of most contemporaries, whether Native American or white, the leader of this mixed band was Black Hawk, a sixty-five-year-old Sauk warrior. ARROWHEADS -- How To Make Your Own Lewis and Clark . Native Americans While Lewis and Clark were the first Americans to see much of what would become the western United States, those same lands had long been occupied by native peoples. Over the course of the expedition, the Corps of Discovery would come into contact with nearly 50 Native American tribes. Quickly, the captains learned how many different definitions there really were for the word “Indian.” The Mandans lived in earth lodges, farmed corn and were amenable to trade with America. The Meeting Ceremony Over the course of the expedition, Lewis and Clark developed a ritual that they used when meeting a tribe for the first time. A Selection of Tribes The tribes listed in Native Americans represent the Indians who had the most significant interactions about Lewis and Clark.
Items for Sale Most items throughout the web site can be closely replicated for you. In addition, I will post items I make specifically to sell, as I make them. Check back occasionally for updates. Please feel free to contact me by email (the link is on the bottom of the first page), snail mail, or telephone. Thanks again for visiting my site! Flintknapping class April 25th through 28th, 2007 at our home in Castle Valley Utah. New Item for Sale! DNA Analysis Shows Native American Genealogy The suppression of the Native Americans and the decimation of their culture is a black page in the history of the United States. The discrimination and injustices towards this ancient race, which had lived on the American continent long before the European conquerors came to this land, are still present to this day despite the efforts of different groups and organizations trying to restore the justice. The destruction of their culture is one of the most shameful aspects of our history, the extent of the damage that was done is still being down-played and denied entry into textbooks and history-lessons to this day. The origin and history of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas have been studied for years by researchers from different countries, and a recent DNA study showed that the genealogy of the western aboriginals is one of the most unique in the world. This explanation was persuasive enough; however, there was no strong evidence to support it.