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The American Revolution

The American Revolution
American Indians and the American Revolution by Collin G. Calloway The Declaration of Independence accused King George III of unleashing "merciless Indian Savages" against innocent men, women, and children. The image of ferocious warriors propelled into action by a tyrannical monarch fixed in memory and imagination the Indians' role in the Revolution and justified their subsequent treatment. But many Indian nations tried to stay out of the conflict, some sided with the Americans, and those who fought with the British were not the king's pawns: they allied with the Crown as the best hope of protecting their homelands from the encroachments of American colonists and land speculators. The British government had afforded Indian lands a measure of protection by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 which had attempted to restrict colonial expansion beyond the Appalachian Mountains, and had alienated many American colonists. Some Indian tribes went to war early. To learn more: Colin G. Related:  Native Peoples

The War for Independence Through Seneca Eyes: Mary Jemison Views the Revolution, 1775-79 The American Revolution divided Indian communities as well as Euro-American ones. Captured at the age of fifteen along the Pennsylvania frontier and adopted and integrated into a Seneca community, Mary Jemison watched the war through the eyes of a wife and mother. The Iroquois attempted to remain neutral in the conflict, and Jemison watched tribal leaders return from a meeting with Patriot colonists at German Flats, secure in their belief that Indian neutrality would be respected. Instead, the British sought to attract Iroquois support and four of the six Iroquois nations declared their allegiance to the crown. Soon, Seneca lands became a battleground and their fields were laid waste by the colonists’ scorched earth tactics. Jemison described the ensuing destruction and disease in 1823 when she related her life story to James Seaver, a local doctor near her home among the Iroquois of western New York. "Brother, you have merited death! "Brother! Source: James E.

The Native Americans' Role in the American Revolution: Choosing Sides Activity 1. Choosing Sides 1. (Optional) If students did not learn about the Seven Years' War prior to this lesson, it might be a good idea to review the role of the Native Americans in that conflict (see Digital History's The Seven Years' War. It will be helpful also if students have an understanding of the way European control of the land changed after that war. 2. Who may have said this? Once the students provide the answers to those questions, they can speculate on the following: Would you expect that the Native Americans would get involved in the fighting of the American Revolution? 3. 4. 5. Journals of the Continental Congress, Speech to the Six Nations, July 13, 1775 This document, on the EDSITEment-reviewed Avalon Project, is a request made by the Americans to the Iroquois, requesting their neutrality. 6. What were the issues that the various Native American groups were facing? 7. Who was the original source? Activity 2. 1. 2. Joseph Brant in London, 1776: 3.

Indian removal Early in the 19th century, while the rapidly-growing United States expanded into the lower South, white settlers faced what they considered an obstacle. This area was home to the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations. These Indian nations, in the view of the settlers and many other white Americans, were standing in the way of progress. Eager for land to raise cotton, the settlers pressured the federal government to acquire Indian territory. Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, was a forceful proponent of Indian removal. In 1814 he commanded the U.S. military forces that defeated a faction of the Creek nation. From 1814 to 1824, Jackson was instrumental in negotiating nine out of eleven treaties which divested the southern tribes of their eastern lands in exchange for lands in the west. In 1823 the Supreme Court handed down a decision which stated that Indians could occupy lands within the United States, but could not hold title to those lands. previous | next

Lewis and Clark . Native Americans While Lewis and Clark were the first Americans to see much of what would become the western United States, those same lands had long been occupied by native peoples. Over the course of the expedition, the Corps of Discovery would come into contact with nearly 50 Native American tribes. Quickly, the captains learned how many different definitions there really were for the word “Indian.” The Meeting Ceremony Over the course of the expedition, Lewis and Clark developed a ritual that they used when meeting a tribe for the first time. A Selection of Tribes The tribes listed in Native Americans represent the Indians who had the most significant interactions about Lewis and Clark.

Pontiac's Rebellion - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society In 1763, the Treaty of Paris brought the French and Indian War to a close. With England's victory in the conflict, all French lands in North America now belonged to the British. Native Americans in the Ohio Country feared the loss of their traditional ally and also believed that British settlers would be moving soon across the Appalachian Mountains. To prevent the incursion of whites, Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa natives encouraged Ohio Country natives to rise up in 1763. In the autumn of 1764, the British military took the offensive against the natives. Although Pontiac did not formally surrender to the British until July 1766, Pontiac's Rebellion had ended in the autumn of 1764. See Also References

Indians and the American Revolution Yet the passions engendered by the American Revolution, despite the good will expressed in the formal policy enunciated by the government, was to lead to bitter and violent confrontations on the frontier. The bloody ground of Kentucky was to be repeated in region after region as the undisciplined and unregulated expansion of the American people got underway. In the end the Indian was the loser. That he would have been a loser even if the King had repressed the rebellion is probable; but his decline would not have been so swift or so bitter. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 30. 31. Tecumseh - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society Tecumseh, meaning Shooting Star, was born in 1768 near Chillicothe, Ohio to the Shawnee tribe; specifically he was the son of the reigning Chief, Pukeshinwau. Throughout his childhood Tecumseh experienced many malevolent, violent expansions by the United States which would later sustain his hatred towards the United States. Multiple times during his youth U.S militia would intersect whatever land the Shawnees were currently occupying. In many cases the Americans would set two tribes against one another through treaties with one party representing the land of the other. Tecumseh's first chances to prove himself as a warrior came during the primary attempts of tribal alliance during the Pan-Indian Movement (1783-1795). Tecumseh's brother, Lalawethica, renewed support for a tribal alliance based on the belief that all Native American territory was universal for every Native American community. See Also References Hurt, R.

Black Hawk War of 1832 By James Lewis, Ph.D. On April 5, 1832, a band of roughly one thousand Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo men, women, and children crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois near the mouth of the Iowa River. They moved north along the eastern bank of the river and then turned to the northeast along the Rock River. In the eyes of most contemporaries, whether Native American or white, the leader of this mixed band was Black Hawk, a sixty-five-year-old Sauk warrior.

Captured By Indians: Mary Jemison Becomes an Indian by Mary Jemison In 1753, fifteen year old Mary Jemison was captured by Indians along the Pennsylvania frontier during the Seven Years’ War between the French, English, and Indian peoples of North America. She was adopted and incorporated into the Senecas, a familiar practice among Iroquois and other Indian peoples seeking to replace a lost sibling or spouse. Mary married and raised a family in the decades before and after the American Revolution; many captives, once adopted and integrated into an Indian community, refused the opportunity to return home, finding life in Indian society more rewarding. Having made fast to the shore, the squaws left me in the canoe while they went to their wigwam or house in the town, and returned with a suit of Indian clothing, all new, and very clean and nice. I had been in that situation hut a few minutes, before all the squaws in the town came in to see me. Their tears flowed freely, and they exhibited all the signs of real mourning. “Oh our brother!

The Native Americans' Role in the American Revolution: Choosing Sides Activity 1. Choosing Sides 1. 2. Who may have said this? Once the students provide the answers to those questions, they can speculate on the following: Would you expect that the Native Americans would get involved in the fighting of the American Revolution? 3. 4. 5. Journals of the Continental Congress, Speech to the Six Nations, July 13, 1775 This document, on the EDSITEment-reviewed Avalon Project, is a request made by the Americans to the Iroquois, requesting their neutrality. 6. What were the issues that the various Native American groups were facing? 7. Who was the original source? Activity 2. 1. 2. Students will be asked to consider some of the following questions about the documents: What was the situation that the Mohawks and other Iroquois were facing at the beginning of the conflict? Joseph Brant in London, 1776: Joseph Brant or Thayendanegea, 1783-86 Modeling image interpretation of 1786 Northumberland portrait of Brant: 3. What changes do you notice in his presentation?

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