Injury The knee of a patient is examined with help of radiography after an injury. An injury is damage to a biological organism caused by physical harm. Major trauma is injury that can potentially lead to serious outcomes. Classification The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics developed the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). nature,part of body affected,source and secondary source, andevent or exposure. The OIICS was first published in 1992 and has been updated several times since. The World Health Organization developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). mechanism of injury,objects/substances producing injury,place of occurrence,activity when injured,the role of human intent, and additional modules. The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is used to classify injuries to enable research into specific sports injuries. By ultimate cause By modality By location By activity
Decision making Sample flowchart representing the decision process to add a new article to Wikipedia. Decision-making can be regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice that may or may not prompt action. Decision-making is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision maker. Decision-making is one of the central activities of management and is a huge part of any process of implementation. Overview Edit human performance with regard to decisions has been the subject of active research from several perspectives: Decision-making can also be regarded as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory. Some have argued that most decisions are made unconsciously. In regards to management and decision-making, each level of management is responsible for different things.
Decision theory Normative and descriptive decision theory Since people usually do not behave in ways consistent with axiomatic rules, often their own, leading to violations of optimality, there is a related area of study, called a positive or descriptive discipline, attempting to describe what people will actually do. Since the normative, optimal decision often creates hypotheses for testing against actual behaviour, the two fields are closely linked. Furthermore it is possible to relax the assumptions of perfect information, rationality and so forth in various ways, and produce a series of different prescriptions or predictions about behaviour, allowing for further tests of the kind of decision-making that occurs in practice. In recent decades, there has been increasing interest in what is sometimes called 'behavioral decision theory' and this has contributed to a re-evaluation of what rational decision-making requires. What kinds of decisions need a theory? Choice under uncertainty
Corporate governance There has been renewed interest in the corporate governance practices of modern corporations, particularly in relation to accountability, since the high-profile collapses of a number of large corporations during 2001–2002, most of which involved accounting fraud. Corporate scandals of various forms have maintained public and political interest in the regulation of corporate governance. In the U.S., these include Enron Corporation and MCI Inc. (formerly WorldCom). Their demise is associated with the U.S. federal government passing the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, intending to restore public confidence in corporate governance. Comparable failures in Australia (HIH, One.Tel) are associated with the eventual passage of the CLERP 9 reforms. Other definitions Economic analysis has resulted in a literature on the subject. One source defines corporate governance as "the set of conditions that shapes the ex post bargaining over the quasi-rents generated by a firm Continental Europe
Environmental ethics Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world. It exerts influence on a large range of disciplines including environmental law, environmental sociology, ecotheology, ecological economics, ecology and environmental geography. There are many ethical decisions that human beings make with respect to the environment. For example: Should we continue to clear cut forests for the sake of human consumption? The academic field of environmental ethics grew up in response to the work of scientists such as Rachel Carson and events such as the first Earth Day in 1970, when environmentalists started urging philosophers to consider the philosophical aspects of environmental problems. Marshall's categories of environmental ethics Libertarian extension Peter Singer's work can be categorized under Marshall's 'libertarian extension'. Ecologic extension
Masculinity Masculinity is a set of qualities, characteristics or roles generally considered typical of, or appropriate to, a man. It can have degrees of comparison: "more masculine", "most masculine'". The opposite can be expressed by terms such as "unmanly" or epicene. A near-synonym of masculinity is virility (from Latin vir, man). Constructs of masculinity vary across historical and cultural contexts. Academic study of masculinity underwent a massive expansion of interest in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with courses in the United States dealing with masculinity rising from 30 to over 300. This has led to the investigation of the intersection of masculinity with other axes of social discrimination and also to the use of concepts from other fields – such as feminism's model of the social construct of gender. Nature versus nurture Hegemonic masculinity Critics of masculinity Masculine gender role stress Masculinity is something that some[who?] Western trends
Intuition (philosophy) Intuition is a priori knowledge or experiential belief characterized by its immediacy. Beyond this, the nature of intuition is debated. Roughly speaking, there are two main views. They are: Intuitions are a priori. In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, intuition is thought of as basic sensory information provided by the cognitive faculty of sensibility (equivalent to what might loosely be called perception). In contemporary analytic philosophy, appeals to our intuitions are an important method for testing claims. The metaphilosophical assumption that philosophy depends on intuitions has recently been challenged by some philosophers. Jump up ^ Immanuel Kant (1787) "Critique of Pure Reason", p35 et seq.
Decision analysis History and methodology The term decision analysis was coined in 1964 by Ronald A. Howard, who since then, as a professor at Stanford University, has been instrumental in developing much of the practice and professional application of DA. Graphical representation of decision analysis problems commonly use influence diagrams and decision trees. Both of these tools represent the alternatives available to the decision maker, the uncertainty they face, and evaluation measures representing how well they achieve their objectives in the final outcome. Uncertainties are represented through probabilities and probability distributions. Decision analysis is used by major corporations to make multi-billion dollar capital investments. Controversy Studies have demonstrated the utility of decision analysis in creating decision-making algorithms that are superior to "unaided intuition". See also References Jump up ^ Howard, Ronald A. (1966). Further reading
Risk management Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. The strategies to manage threats (uncertainties with negative consequences) typically include transferring the threat to another party, avoiding the threat, reducing the negative effect or probability of the threat, or even accepting some or all of the potential or actual consequences of a particular threat, and the opposites for opportunities (uncertain future states with benefits). Introduction A widely used vocabulary for risk management is defined by ISO Guide 73, "Risk management. Vocabulary Risk management also faces difficulties in allocating resources. Method Principles of risk management Risk management should: Process