Injury The knee of a patient is examined with help of radiography after an injury. An injury is damage to a biological organism caused by physical harm. Major trauma is injury that can potentially lead to serious outcomes. Classification The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics developed the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). nature,part of body affected,source and secondary source, andevent or exposure. The OIICS was first published in 1992 and has been updated several times since. The World Health Organization developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). mechanism of injury,objects/substances producing injury,place of occurrence,activity when injured,the role of human intent, and additional modules. The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is used to classify injuries to enable research into specific sports injuries. By ultimate cause By modality By location By activity
Decision making Sample flowchart representing the decision process to add a new article to Wikipedia. Decision-making can be regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice that may or may not prompt action. Decision-making is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision maker. Decision-making is one of the central activities of management and is a huge part of any process of implementation. Overview Edit human performance with regard to decisions has been the subject of active research from several perspectives: Decision-making can also be regarded as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory. Some have argued that most decisions are made unconsciously. In regards to management and decision-making, each level of management is responsible for different things.
Decision theory Normative and descriptive decision theory Since people usually do not behave in ways consistent with axiomatic rules, often their own, leading to violations of optimality, there is a related area of study, called a positive or descriptive discipline, attempting to describe what people will actually do. Since the normative, optimal decision often creates hypotheses for testing against actual behaviour, the two fields are closely linked. Furthermore it is possible to relax the assumptions of perfect information, rationality and so forth in various ways, and produce a series of different prescriptions or predictions about behaviour, allowing for further tests of the kind of decision-making that occurs in practice. In recent decades, there has been increasing interest in what is sometimes called 'behavioral decision theory' and this has contributed to a re-evaluation of what rational decision-making requires. What kinds of decisions need a theory? Choice under uncertainty
Masculinity Masculinity is a set of qualities, characteristics or roles generally considered typical of, or appropriate to, a man. It can have degrees of comparison: "more masculine", "most masculine'". The opposite can be expressed by terms such as "unmanly" or epicene. A near-synonym of masculinity is virility (from Latin vir, man). Constructs of masculinity vary across historical and cultural contexts. Academic study of masculinity underwent a massive expansion of interest in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with courses in the United States dealing with masculinity rising from 30 to over 300. This has led to the investigation of the intersection of masculinity with other axes of social discrimination and also to the use of concepts from other fields – such as feminism's model of the social construct of gender. Nature versus nurture Hegemonic masculinity Critics of masculinity Masculine gender role stress Masculinity is something that some[who?] Western trends
Intuition (philosophy) Intuition is a priori knowledge or experiential belief characterized by its immediacy. Beyond this, the nature of intuition is debated. Roughly speaking, there are two main views. They are: Intuitions are a priori. In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, intuition is thought of as basic sensory information provided by the cognitive faculty of sensibility (equivalent to what might loosely be called perception). In contemporary analytic philosophy, appeals to our intuitions are an important method for testing claims. The metaphilosophical assumption that philosophy depends on intuitions has recently been challenged by some philosophers. Jump up ^ Immanuel Kant (1787) "Critique of Pure Reason", p35 et seq.
Decision analysis History and methodology The term decision analysis was coined in 1964 by Ronald A. Howard, who since then, as a professor at Stanford University, has been instrumental in developing much of the practice and professional application of DA. Graphical representation of decision analysis problems commonly use influence diagrams and decision trees. Both of these tools represent the alternatives available to the decision maker, the uncertainty they face, and evaluation measures representing how well they achieve their objectives in the final outcome. Uncertainties are represented through probabilities and probability distributions. Decision analysis is used by major corporations to make multi-billion dollar capital investments. Controversy Studies have demonstrated the utility of decision analysis in creating decision-making algorithms that are superior to "unaided intuition". See also References Jump up ^ Howard, Ronald A. (1966). Further reading
Leadership Theories Early western history The trait theory was explored at length in a number of works in the 19th century. Most notable are the writings of Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research. In Heroes and Hero Worship (1841), Carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. Rise of alternative theories In the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e.g., Bird, 1940; Stogdill, 1948; Mann, 1959) prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. Reemergence of trait theory New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish the trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. Specifically, Zaccaro (2007) noted that trait theories still: Attribute pattern approach Behavioral and style theories B.F.
Awareness Concept Awareness is a relative concept. An animal may be partially aware, may be subconsciously aware, or may be acutely unaware of an event. Awareness may be focused on an internal state, such as a visceral feeling, or on external events by way of sensory perception. Awareness provides the raw material from which animals develop qualia, or subjective ideas about their experience. Insects have awareness that you are trying to swat them or chase after them. Self-awareness Main article: Self-awareness Popular ideas about consciousness suggest the phenomenon describes a condition of being aware of one's awareness or, self-awareness. Efforts to describe consciousness in neurological terms have focused on describing networks in the brain that develop awareness of the qualia developed by other networks. Neuroscience Basic awareness Basic awareness of one's internal and external world depends on the brain stem. Basic interests Changes in awareness
Utility Economic definitions In economics, utility is a representation of preferences over some set of goods and services. Preferences have a (continuous) utility representation so long as they are transitive, complete, and continuous. Utility is usually applied by economists in such constructs as the indifference curve, which plot the combination of commodities that an individual or a society would accept to maintain a given level of satisfaction. In finance, utility is applied to generate an individual's price for an asset called the indifference price. Quantifying utility It was recognized that utility could not be measured or observed directly, so instead economists devised a way to infer underlying relative utilities from observed choice. Utility is taken to be correlative to Desire or Want. Cardinal and ordinal utility Economists distinguish between cardinal utility and ordinal utility. Utility functions of both sorts assign a ranking to members of a choice set. implies .