background preloader

Poverty

Poverty
Poverty is general scarcity or dearth, or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money.[1] Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the deprivation of basic human needs, which commonly includes food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care and education. Relative poverty is defined contextually as economic inequality in the location or society in which people live.[2][3] After the industrial revolution, mass production in factories made production goods increasingly less expensive and more accessible. Of more importance is the modernization of agriculture, such as fertilizers, to provide enough yield to feed the population.[4] The supply of basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government services such as corruption, tax avoidance, debt and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care and educational professionals. Etymology The English word "poverty" via Anglo-Norman povert. Measuring poverty Definitions Absolute poverty Related:  schools of thought on criminology

Education School children sitting in the shade of an orchard in Bamozai, near Gardez, Paktya Province, Afghanistan A right to education has been recognized by some governments. At the global level, Article 13 of the United Nations' 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an education.[2] Although education is compulsory in most places up to a certain age, attendance at school often isn't, and a minority of parents choose home-schooling, e-learning or similar for their children. Etymology[edit] Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin ēducātiō ("A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing") from ēdūcō ("I educate, I train") which is related to the homonym ēdūcō ("I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect") from ē- ("from, out of") and dūcō ("I lead, I conduct").[3] Education can take place in formal or informal educational settings. History[edit] Nalanda, ancient center for higher learning Formal education[edit]

Alcohol Ball-and-stick model of the hydroxyl (-OH) functional group in an alcohol molecule (R3COH). The three "R's" stand for carbon substituents or hydrogen atoms.[1] The hydroxyl (-OH) functional group with bond angle. An important class of alcohols are the simple acyclic alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+1OH. Of these ethanol (C2H5OH) is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages; in common speech the word alcohol refers to ethanol. Other alcohols are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or wood alcohol (methyl alcohol, or methanol). In everyday life "alcohol" without qualification usually refers to ethanol, or a beverage based on ethanol (as in the term "alcohol abuse"). Toxicity Ball-and-stick model of tert-Amyl alcohol, which is 20 times more intoxicating than ethanol and like all tertiary alcohols, cannot be metabolised to toxic aldehydes.[3][4][5] Treatment Nomenclature Systematic names Common names Alkyl chain variations in alcohols

Population density Population density (people per km2) by country, 2006. Population density (people per km2) map of the world in 1994 (detailed). Population density (people per km2) map of the world in 1994. Deserts around the world. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. Lists of population density of different countries are below. Biological population densities[edit] Population density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate.[1] Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. Increased problems with locating sexual matesIncreased inbreeding Human population density[edit] Monaco in South Europe, currently holds the record for being the most densely populated nation in the world. Mongolia is the least densely populated country in the world. Most densely populated countries/regions[edit] See also[edit]

Crime statistics Crime statistics attempt to provide statistical measures of crime committed in societies. Given that crime is usually secretive by nature, measurements of it are likely to be inaccurate. Several methods for measuring crime exist, including household surveys, hospital or insurance records, and compilations by police and similar law enforcement agencies. Typically official crime statistics are the latter, but some offences are likely to go unreported to the police. Or not all types of offences are reported constantly and completely as they occur. Statistics on crime are gathered and reported by many countries, They are of particular interest to several international organizations, including Interpol and the United Nations. Two major methods for collecting crime data are law enforcement reports, which only reflect reported crimes and victimization statistical surveys. Counting rules[edit] Counting rules vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Surveys[edit] Classification[edit] Measures[edit]

Anthropological criminology History[edit] The physiognomist Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741–1801) was one of the first to suggest a link between facial figures and crime.[1] Victor Hugo referred to his work in Les Misérables, about what he would have said about Thénardier's face. Franz Joseph Gall then developed in 1810 his work on craniology, in which he alleged that crime was one of the behaviors organically controlled by a specific area of the brain. The philosopher Jacob Fries (1773–1843) also suggested a link between crime and physical appearance when he published a criminal anthropology handbook in 1820. The Italian school[edit] However, criminal anthropology per se refers to the Italian school of criminology, whose most famous member was Cesare Lombroso. Mugshot and fingerprinting[edit] On the other hand, Alphonse Bertillon (1853–1914) created a mugshot identification system for criminals prior to the invention of fingerprinting. Social Darwinism[edit] The theory[edit] Rejection[edit] Modern times[edit] See also[edit]

Italian school of criminology The Italian school of criminology was founded at the end of the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909) and two of his Italian disciples, Enrico Ferri (1856–1929) and Raffaele Garofalo (1851–1934). Lombroso's conception of the "atavistic born criminal"[edit] The central idea of Lombroso's work came to him as he autopsied the body of a notorious Italian criminal named Giuseppe Villela. As he contemplated Villela's skull, he noted that certain characteristics of it (specifically, a depression on the occiput that he named the median occipital fossa) reminded him of the skulls of "inferior races" and "the lower types of apes, rodents, and birds". Typology of criminals[edit] In addition to the "atavistic born criminal", Lombroso identified two other types: the "insane criminal", and the "criminaloid". Ferri's penology[edit] Garofalo's "natural" definition of crime[edit] Garofalo is perhaps best known for his efforts to formulate a "natural" definition of crime. References[edit] See also[edit]

Cesare Lombroso Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; Italian: [ˈtʃɛzare lombˈroso]; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology. Lombroso rejected the established Classical School, which held that crime was a characteristic trait of human nature. Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, early eugenics, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage, or atavistic. Life[edit] Concept of criminal atavism[edit] Lombroso's general theory suggested that criminals are distinguished from noncriminals by multiple physical anomalies. Besides the "born criminal", Lombroso also described "criminaloids", or occasional criminals, criminals by passion, moral imbeciles, and criminal epileptics. Psychiatric art[edit]

Positivism Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from logical and mathematical treatments and reports of sensory experience is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge,[1] and that there is valid knowledge (truth) only in scientific knowledge.[2] Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence.[1] This view holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected. Although the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of Western thought,[3] the modern sense of the approach was developed by the philosopher and founding sociologist Auguste Comte in the early 19th century.[4] Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so also does society.[5] Etymology[edit] Overview[edit] Antecedents[edit] Auguste Comte[edit] Antipositivism[edit] Logical positivism and postpositivism[edit]

Differential association In criminology, Differential Association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. Differential association predicts that an individual will choose the criminal path when the balance of definitions for law-breaking exceeds those for law-abiding. This tendency will be reinforced if social association provides active people in the person's life. Sutherland's Theory of Differential Association[edit] The principles of Sutherland's Theory of Differential Association key points:[1] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Explanation[edit] Furthermore, some new and additional theoretical specifications about the social influence of others on the individual, all in accordance with the original ideas of Sutherland are proposed and empirically tested. An important quality of differential association theory concerns the frequency and intensity of interaction. Critique[edit]

Biology History The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, and the causes through which they have been effected. The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology [Biologie] or the doctrine of life [Lebenslehre]. Although modern biology is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz (781–869), Al-Dinawari (828–896), who wrote on botany,[8] and Rhazes (865–925) who wrote on anatomy and physiology. Biology began to quickly develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope. The discovery of the physical representation of heredity came along with evolutionary principles and population genetics. Foundations of modern biology Cell theory Main article: Cell theory Evolution Genetics

Positivist school In criminology, the Positivist School has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behavior. As the scientific method became the major paradigm in the search for all knowledge, the Classical School's social philosophy was replaced by the quest for scientific laws that would be discovered by experts. It is divided into Biological, Psychological and Social. Biological positivism[edit] If Charles Darwin's Theory of evolution was scientific as applied to animals, the same approach should be applied to "man" as an "animal". Physical characteristics[edit] Intelligence[edit] There are a number of reputable studies that demonstrate a link between lower intelligence and criminality. Other medical factors[edit] Testosterone and adrenaline have been associated with aggression and violence, and the arousal and excited state associated with them. Psychological positivism[edit] Social positivism[edit] References[edit] Goring, Charles. (1913).

Anti-social behaviour Anti-social behaviour is behaviour that lacks consideration for others and may cause damage to the society, whether intentionally or through negligence. This is the opposite of pro-social behaviour, which helps or benefits the society.[1] Anti-social behaviour is labelled as such when it is deemed contrary to prevailing norms for social conduct. This encompasses a large spectrum of actions. Criminal and civil laws in various countries attempt to offer remedies for anti-social behaviour. Social development[edit] Intent and discrimination may determine both pro- and anti-social behaviour. Identification[edit] Anti-social personality disorder[edit] [citation needed] Anti Social Behavior Order in the UK[edit] In 2003 the Anti-Social Behaviour Act amended the original Act and introduced further sanctions such as Child Curfews and Dispersal Orders. The following list sets out what behaviour the UK police classify as anti-social:[10] Controversy[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Sources[edit]

Subculture In sociology, and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong. The term subculture has become deprecated among some researchers, who prefer the term co-culture, in order to avoid the connotations of inferiority associated with the "sub-" prefix.[1][2] While exact definitions vary, the Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture."[3] Definition[edit] often negative relations to work (as 'idle', 'parasitic', at play or at leisure, etc.) Identifying subcultures[edit] The study of subcultures often consists of the study of symbolism attached to clothing, music and other visible affectations by members of subcultures, and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members of the dominant culture. Subcultures' relationships with mainstream culture[edit]

Classical school In criminology, the Classical School usually refers to the 18th-century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and social contract philosophers Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria. Their interests lay in the system of criminal justice and penology and, indirectly through the proposition that "man is a calculating animal", in the causes of criminal behaviour. The Classical school of thought was premised on the idea that people have free will in making decisions, and that punishment can be a deterrent for crime, so long as the punishment is proportional, fits the crime, and is carried out promptly. Reform[edit] The system of law, its mechanisms of enforcement and the forms of punishment used in the 18th century were primitive and inconsistent[citation needed]. The social contract[edit] Beccaria[edit] Bentham[edit] But the concept is problematic because it depends on two critical assumptions: Spiritual explanation of crime[edit] [edit] See also[edit] Criminology#Schools of thought

Related: